Tuesday, December 20, 2005

Genocides, Crimes and Massacres Committed by the PLO, CIA and the Syrians Against the Lebanese (1975-2009).


Genocides, Crimes and Massacres Committed by the PLO, CIA/MOSSAD and the Syrians
Against the Lebanese (1975-2009).



January 10, 04-Just before his death, James Jesus Angleton, the legendary
chief of counterintelligence at the Central Intelligence Agency, was a
bitter man. He felt betrayed by the people he had worked for all his life.
In the end, he had come to realize that they were never really interested in
American ideals of "freedom" and "democracy." They really only wanted
"absolute power."

Angleton told author Joseph Trento that the reason he had gotten the
counterintelligence job in the first place was by agreeing not to submit
"sixty of Allen Dulles' closest friends" to a polygraph test concerning
their business deals with the Nazis. In his end-of-life despair, Angleton
assumed that he would see all his old companions again "in hell."

The transformation of James Jesus Angleton from an enthusiastic, Ivy League
cold warrior, to a bitter old man, is an extreme example of a phenomenon I
call a "paranoid shift." I recognize the phenomenon, because something
similar happened to me.

Although I don't remember ever meeting James Jesus Angleton, I worked at the
CIA myself as a low-level clerk as a teenager in the '60s. This was at the
same time I was beginning to question the government's actions in Vietnam.
In fact, my personal "paranoid shift" probably began with the
disillusionment I felt when I realized that the story of American foreign
policy was, at the very least, more complicated and darker than I had
hitherto been led to believe.

But for most of the next 30 years, even though I was a radical, I
nevertheless held faith in the basic integrity of a system where power
ultimately resided in the people, and whereby if enough people got together
and voted, real and fundamental change could happen.

What constitutes my personal paranoid shift is that I no longer believe this
to be necessarily true.

In his book, "Rogue State: A Guide to the World's Only Superpower," William
Blum warns of how the media will make anything that smacks of "conspiracy
theory" an immediate "object of ridicule." This prevents the media from ever
having to investigate the many strange interconnections among the ruling
class-for example, the relationship between the boards of directors of media
giants, and the energy, banking and defense industries. These unmentionable
topics are usually treated with what Blum calls "the media's most effective
tool-silence." But in case somebody's asking questions, all you have to do
is say, "conspiracy theory," and any allegation instantly becomes too
frivolous to merit serious attention.

On the other hand, since my paranoid shift, whenever I hear the words
"conspiracy theory" (which seems more often, lately) it usually means
someone is getting too close to the truth.

Take September 11-which I identify as the date my paranoia actually shifted,
though I didn't know it at the time.

Unless I'm paranoid, it doesn't make any sense at all that George W. Bush,
commander-in-chief, sat in a second-grade classroom for 20 minutes after he
was informed that a second plane had hit the World Trade Center, listening
to children read a story about a goat. Nor does it make sense that the
Number 2 man, Dick Cheney-even knowing that "the commander" was on a mission
in Florida-nevertheless sat at his desk in the White House, watching TV,
until the Secret Service dragged him out by the armpits.

Unless I'm paranoid, it makes no sense that Defense Secretary Donald
Rumsfeld sat at his desk until Flight 77 hit the Pentagon-well over an hour
after the military had learned about the multiple hijacking in progress. It
also makes no sense that the brand-new chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
sat in a Senate office for two hours while the 9/11 attacks took place,
after leaving explicit instructions that he not be disturbed-which he

In other words, while the 9/11 attacks were occurring, the entire top of the
chain of command of the most powerful military in the world sat at various
desks, inert. Why weren't they in the "Situation Room?" Don't any of them
ever watch "West Wing?"

In a sane world, this would be an object of major scandal. But here on this
side of the paranoid shift, it's business as usual.

Years, even decades before 9/11, plans had been drawn up for American forces
to take control of the oil interests of the Middle East, for various
imperialist reasons. And these plans were only contingent upon "a
catastrophic and catalyzing event, like a new Pearl Harbor," to gain the
majority support of the American public to set the plans into motion. When
the opportunity presented itself, the guards looked the other way... and
presto, the path to global domination was open.

Simple, as long as the media played along. And there is voluminous evidence
that the media play along. Number one on Project Censored's annual list of
underreported stories in 2002 was the Project for a New American Century
(now the infrastructure of the Bush Regime), whose report, published in
2000, contains the above "Pearl Harbor" quote.

Why is it so hard to believe serious people who have repeatedly warned us
that powerful ruling elites are out to dominate "the masses?" Did we think
Dwight Eisenhower was exaggerating when he warned of the extreme "danger" to
democracy of "the military industrial complex?" Was Barry Goldwater just
being a quaint old-fashioned John Bircher when he said that the Trilateral
Commission was "David Rockefeller's latest scheme to take over the world, by
taking over the government of the United States?" Were Teddy and Franklin
Roosevelt or Joseph Kennedy just being class traitors when they talked about
a small group of wealthy elites who operate as a hidden government behind
the government? Especially after he died so mysteriously, why shouldn't we
believe the late CIA Director William Colby, who bragged about how the CIA
"owns everyone of any major significance in the major media?"

Why can't we believe James Jesus Angleton-a man staring eternal judgment in
the face-when he says that the founders of the Cold War national security
state were only interested in "absolute power?" Especially when the
descendant of a very good friend of Allen Dulles now holds power in the
White House.

Prescott Bush, the late, aristocratic senator from Connecticut, and
grandfather of George W Bush, was not only a good friend of Allen Dulles,
CIA director, president of the Council on Foreign Relations, and
international business lawyer. He was also a client of Dulles' law firm. As
such, he was the beneficiary of Dulles' miraculous ability to scrub the
story of Bush's treasonous investments in the Third Reich out of the news
media, where it might have interfered with Bush's political career... not to
mention the presidential careers of his son and grandson.

Recently declassified US government documents, unearthed last October by
investigative journalist John Buchanan at the New Hampshire Gazette, reveal
that Prescott Bush's involvement in financing and arming the Nazis was more
extensive than previously known. Not only was Bush managing director of the
Union Banking Corporation, the American branch of Hitler's chief financier's
banking network; but among the other companies where Bush was a director-and
which were seized by the American government in 1942, under the Trading With
the Enemy Act-were a shipping line which imported German spies; an energy
company that supplied the Luftwaffe with high-ethyl fuel; and a steel
company that employed Jewish slave labor from the Auschwitz concentration

Like all the other Bush scandals that have been swept under the rug in the
privatized censorship of the corporate media, these revelations have been
largely ignored, with the exception of a single article in the Associated
Press. And there are those, even on the left, who question the current
relevance of this information.

But Prescott Bush's dealings with the Nazis do more than illustrate a family
pattern of genteel treason and war profiteering-from George Senior's sale of
TOW missiles to Iran at the same time he was selling biological and chemical
weapons to Saddam Hussein, to Junior's zany misadventures in crony
capitalism in present-day Iraq.

More disturbing by far are the many eerie parallels between Adolph Hitler
and George W. Bush:

A conservative, authoritarian style, with public appearances in military
uniform (which no previous American president has ever done while in
office). Government by secrecy, propaganda and deception. Open assaults on
labor unions and workers' rights. Preemptive war and militant nationalism.
Contempt for international law and treaties. Suspiciously convenient
"terrorist" attacks, to justify a police state and the suspension of
liberties. A carefully manufactured image of "The Leader," who's still just
a "regular guy" and a "moderate." "Freedom" as the rationale for every
action. Fantasy economic growth, based on unprecedented budget deficits and
massive military spending.

And a cold, pragmatic ideology of fascism-including the violent suppression
of dissent and other human rights; the use of torture, assassination and
concentration camps; and most important, Benito Mussolini's preferred
definition of "fascism" as "corporatism, because it binds together the
interests of corporations and the state."

By their fruits, you shall know them.

What perplexes me most is probably the same question that plagues most
paranoiacs: why don't other people see these connections?

Oh, sure, there may be millions of us, lurking at websites like Online
Journal, From the Wilderness, Center for Cooperative Research, and the
Center for Research on Globalization, checking out right-wing conspiracists
and the galaxy of 9/11 sites, and reading columnists like Chris Floyd at the
Moscow Times, and Maureen Farrell at Buzzflash. But we know we are only a
furtive minority, the human remnant among the pod people in the live-action,
21st-century version of "Invasion of the Body Snatchers."

And being paranoid, we have to figure out, with an answer that fits into our
system, why more people don't see the connections we do. Fortunately, there
are a number of possible explanations.

First on the list would have to be what Marshal McLuhan called the "cave art
of the electronic age:" advertising. Joseph Goebbels, Hitler's Karl Rove,
gave credit for most of his ideas on how to manipulate mass opinion to
American commercial advertising, and to the then-new science of "public
relations." But the public relations universe available to the corporate
empire that rules the world today makes the Goebbels operation look
primitive. The precision of communications technology and graphics; the
century of research on human psychology and emotion; and the uniquely
centralized control of triumphant post-Cold War monopoly capitalism, have
combined to the point where "the manufacture of consent" can be set on
automatic pilot.

A second major reason people won't make the paranoid shift is that they are
too fundamentally decent. They can't believe that the elected leaders of our
country, the people they've been taught through 12 years of public school to
admire and trust, are capable of sending young American soldiers to their
deaths and slaughtering tens of thousands of innocent civilians, just to
satisfy their greed-especially when they're so rich in the first place.
Besides, America is good, and the media are liberal and overly critical.

Third, people don't want to look like fools. Being a "conspiracy theorist"
is like being a creationist. The educated opinion of eminent experts on
every TV and radio network is that any discussion of "oil" being a
motivation for the US invasion of Iraq is just out of bounds, and anyone who
thinks otherwise is a "conspiracy theorist." We can trust the integrity of
our 'no-bid" contracting in Iraq, and anyone who thinks otherwise is a
"conspiracy theorist." Of course, people sometimes make mistakes, but our
military and intelligence community did the best they could on and before
September 11, and anybody who thinks otherwise is a "conspiracy theorist."

Lee Harvey Oswald was the sole assassin of JFK, and anyone who thinks
otherwise is a "conspiracy theorist."

Perhaps the biggest hidden reason people don't make the paranoid shift is
that knowledge brings responsibility. If we acknowledge that an inner circle
of ruling elites controls the world's most powerful military and
intelligence system; controls the international banking system; controls the
most effective and far-reaching propaganda network in history; controls all
three branches of government in the world's only superpower; and controls
the technology that counts the people's votes, we might be then forced to
conclude that we don't live in a particularly democratic system. And then
voting and making contributions and trying to stay informed wouldn't be
enough. Because then the duty of citizenship would go beyond serving as a
loyal opposition, to serving as a "loyal resistance"-like the Republicans in
the Spanish Civil War, except that in this case the resistance to fascism
would be on the side of the national ideals, rather than the government; and
a violent insurgency would not only play into the empire's hands, it would
be doomed from the start.

Forming a nonviolent resistance movement, on the other hand, might mean
forsaking some middle class comfort, and it would doubtless require a lot of
work. It would mean educating ourselves and others about the nature of the
truly apocalyptic beast we face. It would mean organizing at the most basic
neighborhood level, face to face. (We cannot put our trust in the empire's
technology.) It would mean reaching across turf lines and transcending
single-issue politics, forming coalitions and sharing data and names and
strategies, and applying energy at every level of government, local to
global. It would also probably mean civil disobedience, at a time when the
Bush regime is starting to classify that action as "terrorism." In the end,
it may mean organizing a progressive confederacy to govern ourselves, just
as our revolutionary founders formed the Continental Congress. It would mean
being wise as serpents, and gentle as doves.

It would be a lot of work. It would also require critical mass. A paradigm

But as a paranoid, I'm ready to join the resistance. And the main reason is
I no longer think that the "conspiracy" is much of a "theory."

That the US House of Representatives Select Committee on Assassinations
concluded that the murder of John Fitzgerald Kennedy was "probably" the
result of "a conspiracy," and that 70 percent of Americans agree with this
conclusion, is not a "theory." It's fact.

That the Bay of Pigs fiasco, "Operation Zapata," was organized by members of
Skull and Bones, the ghoulish and powerful secret society at Yale University
whose membership also included Prescott, George Herbert Walker and George W
Bush; that two of the ships that carried the Cuban counterrevolutionaries to
their appointment with absurdity were named the "Barbara" and the
"Houston"-George HW Bush's city of residence at the time-and that the oil
company Bush owned, then operating in the Caribbean area, was named
"Zapata," is not "theory." It's fact.

That George Bush was the CIA director who kept the names of what were
estimated to be hundreds of American journalists, considered to be CIA
"assets," from the Church Committee, the US Senate Intelligence Committe
chaired by Senator Frank Church that investigated the CIA in the 1970s; that
a 1971 University of Michigan study concluded that, in America, the more TV
you watched, the less you knew; and that a recent survey by international
scholars found that Americans were the most "ignorant" of world affairs out
of all the populations they studied, is not a "theory." It's fact.

That the Council on Foreign Relations has a history of influence on official
US government foreign policy; that the protection of US supplies of Middle
East oil has been a central element of American foreign policy since the
Second World War; and that global oil production has been in decline since
its peak year, 2000, is not "theory." It's fact.

That, in the early 1970s, the newly-formed Trilateral Commission published a
report which recommended that, in order for "globalization" to succeed,
American manufacturing jobs had to be exported, and American wages had to
decline, which is exactly what happened over the next three decades; and
that, during that same period, the richest one percent of Americans doubled
their share of the national wealth, is not "theory." It's fact.

That, beyond their quasi-public role as agents of the US Treasury
Department, the Federal Reserve Banks are profit-making corporations, whose
beneficiaries include some of America's wealthiest families; and that the
United States has a virtual controlling interest in the World Bank, the
International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade Organization, the three
dominant global financial institutions, is not a "theory." It's fact.

That-whether it's heroin from Southeast Asia in the '60s and '70s, or
cocaine from Central America and heroin from Afghanistan in the '80s, or
cocaine from Colombia in the '90s, or heroin from Afghanistan today-no major
CIA covert operation has ever lacked a drug smuggling component, and that
the CIA2 has hired Nazis, fascists, drug dealers, assassins like Asef SHAWKAT,
arms smugglers, mass murderers, perverts, sadists, terrorists and the Mafia,
is not "theory." It's fact.....

That the international oil industry is the dominant player in the global
economy; that the Bush family has a decades-long business relationship with
the Saudi royal family, Saudi oil money, and the family of Osama bin Laden;
that, as president, both George Bushes have favored the interests of oil
companies over the public interest; that both George Bushes have personally
profited financially from Middle East oil; and that American oil companies
doubled their records for quarterly profits in the months just preceding the
invasion of Iraq, is not "theory." It's fact.

That the 2000 presidential election was deliberately stolen; that the
pro-Bush/anti-Gore bias in the corporate media had spiked markedly in the
last three weeks of the campaign; that corporate media were then virtually
silent about the Florida recount; and that the Bush 2000 team had planned to
challenge the legitimacy of the election if George W had won the popular,
but lost the electoral vote-exactly what happened to Gore-is not "theory."
It's fact.

That the intelligence about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction was
deceptively "cooked" by the Bush administration; that anybody paying
attention to people like former UN weapons inspector Scott Ritter, knew
before the invasion that the weapons were a hoax; and that American forces
in Iraq today are applying the same brutal counterinsurgency tactics
pioneered in Central America in the 1980s, under the direct supervision of
then-Vice President George HW Bush, is not a "theory." It's fact.

That "Rebuilding America's Defenses," the Project for a New American
Century's 2000 report, and "The Grand Chessboard," a book published a few
years earlier by Trilateral Commission co-founder Zbigniew Brzezinski, both
recommended a more robust and imperial US military presence in the oil basin
of the Middle East and the Caspian region; and that both also suggested that
American public support for this energy crusade would depend on public
response to a new "Pearl Harbor," is not "theory." It's fact.

That, in the 1960s, the Joint Chiefs of Staff unanimously approved a plan
called "Operation Northwoods," to stage terrorist attacks on American soil
that could be used to justify an invasion of Cuba; and that there is
currently an office in the Pentagon whose function is to instigate terrorist
attacks that could be used to justify future strategically-desired military
responses, is not a "theory." It's fact.

That neither the accusation by former British Environmental Minister Michael
Meacher, Tony Blair's longest-serving cabinet minister, that George W Bush
allowed the 9/11 attacks to happen to justify an oil war in the Middle East;
nor the RICO lawsuit filed by 9/11 widow Ellen Mariani against Bush, Cheney,
Rumsfeld and the Council on Foreign Relations (among others), on the grounds
that they conspired to let the attacks happen to cash in on the ensuing war
profiteering, has captured the slightest attention from American corporate
media is not a "theory." It's fact.

That the FBI has completely exonerated-though never identified-the
speculators who purchased, a few days before the attacks (through a bank
whose previous director is now the CIA executive director), an unusual
number of "put" options, and who made millions betting that the stocks in
American and United Airlines would crash, is not a "theory." It's fact.

That the US intelligence community received numerous warnings, from multiple
sources, throughout the summer of 2001, that a major terrorist attack on
American interests was imminent; that, according to the chair of the
"independent" 9/11 commission, the attacks "could have and should have been
prevented," and according to a Senate Intelligence Committee member, "All
the dots were connected;" that the White House has verified George W Bush's
personal knowledge, as of August 6, 2001, that these terrorist attacks might
be domestic and might involve hijacked airliners; that, in the summer of
2001, at the insistence of the American Secret Service, anti-aircraft
ordnance was installed around the city of Genoa, Italy, to defend against a
possible terrorist suicide attack, by aircraft, against George W Bush, who
was attending the economic summit there; and that George W Bush has
nevertheless regaled audiences with his first thought upon seeing the
"first" plane hit the World Trade Center, which was: "What a terrible
pilot," is not "theory." It's fact.

That, on the morning of September 11, 2001: standard procedures and policies
at the nation's air defense and aviation bureaucracies were ignored, and
communications were delayed; the black boxes of the planes that hit the WTC
were destroyed, but hijacker Mohammed Atta's passport was found in pristine
condition; high-ranking Pentagon officers had cancelled their commercial
flight plans for that morning; George H.W. Bush was meeting in Washington
with representatives of Osama bin Laden's family, and other investors in the
world's largest private equity firm, the Carlyle Group; the CIA was
conducting a previously-scheduled mock exercise of an airliner hitting the
Pentagon; the chairs of both the House and Senate Intelligence Committees
were having breakfast with the chief of Pakistan's intelligence agency, who
resigned a week later on suspicion of involvement in the 9/11 attacks; and
the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the United States sat in a
second grade classroom for 20 minutes after hearing that a second plane had
struck the towers, listening to children read a story about a goat, is not
"theoretical." These are facts.

That the Bush administration has desperately fought every attempt to
independently investigate the events of 9/11, is not a "theory."

Nor, finally, is it in any way a "theory" that the one, single name that can
be directly linked to the Third Reich, the US military industrial complex,
Skull and Bones, Eastern Establishment good ol' boys, the Illuminati, Big
Texas Oil, the Bay of Pigs, the Miami Cubans, the Mafia, the FBI, the JFK
assassination, the New World Order, Watergate, the Republican National
Committee, Eastern European fascists, the Council on Foreign Relations, the
Trilateral Commission, the United Nations, CIA headquarters, the October
Surprise, the Iran/Contra scandal, Inslaw, the Christic Institute, Manuel
Noriega, drug-running "freedom fighters" and death squads, Iraqgate, Saddam
Hussein, weapons of mass destruction, the blood of innocents, the savings
and loan crash, the Bank of Credit and Commerce International, the
"Octopus," the "Enterprise," the Afghan mujaheddin, the War on Drugs, Mena
(Arkansas), Whitewater, Sun Myung Moon, the Carlyle Group, Osama bin Laden
and the Saudi royal family, David Rockefeller, Henry Kissinger, and the
presidency and vice-presidency of the United States, is: George Herbert
Walker Bush.

"Theory?" To the contrary.

It is a well-documented, tragic and-especially terrifying fact.



On May 24, 1979, a 14 ft. bronze statue of General William J. Donovan was dedicated in front of Columbia University’s Law School. The dedication speech was delivered by John J. McCloy, who had been Asst. Sec. of War when Donovan founded the Office of Strategic Services in World War II. When Donovan died on Feb. 8, 1959, the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Allen W. Dulles, sent a message to all CIA stations around the world, “Bill Donovan was the father of central intelligence. He was a great leader.”

International intelligence, or, as it was formerly known, espionage, was not founded by either Donovan or Dulles, who were merely employees of the World Order. The Order founded international espionage to protect their far reaching investments and dealings in slaves, drugs and gold, the commodities on which their wealth was built.

On Nov. 17, 1843, the Port of Shanghai was opened to foreign traders. Lot No. 1 was rented by Jardine Mathieson & Co. Other entrepreneurs were Dent & Co., and Samuel Russell, an American who represented Baring Brothers. Captain Warren Delano, Franklin D. Roosevelt’s grandfather, became a charter member of the Canton Regatta Club, and entered into dealings with the Hong Society. Dr. Emmanuel Josephson states, “Warren Delano, Frederic A. Delano’s father, founded his fortune on smuggling opium into China.” His son, Frederic A. Delano, was born in Hong Kong, and later became the first vice chairman of the Federal Reserve Board in 1914.

Although he was the son of an Irish wardheeler, William J. Donovan studied law at Columbia from 1903 to 1908. His grades were said to be “atrocious”, but one of his professors, Harlan F. Stone, took a liking to him. Another protege of Stone was J. Edgar Hoover. As Attorney General Stone shocked Washington by naming Hoover director of the Bureau of Investigation. Another Columbia professor who liked Donovan was Jackson E. Reynolds, later president of the First National Bank of N.Y. who backed Donovan’s selection as head of OSS. One of Donovan’s Columbia classmates was Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

In 1910, Donovan met Eleanor Robson, an actress who later married August Belmont, American representative of the Rothschilds. There was no question of their marriage – he was looking for a rich wife, she was looking for a rich husband – they began a relationship which lasted for years. Donovan also courted Blanche Lopez, of a wealthy tobacco family, who lived in Rumson, N.J. He then returned to Buffalo, where he opened a law practice. He met Ruth Rumsey, and abruptly dropped Blanche Lopez, never contacting her again. Ruth Rumsey was heiress of one of the richest families in America. Her father, Dexter Rumsey, and her uncle Bronson owned 22 of Bufflao’s 43 square miles. In 1890, Dexter Rumsey was worth $10 million. His wife was a member of the wealthy Hazard family of Rhode Island, who had owned one thousand slaves, and were the largest slave owners in America. The Rumseys were Masters of the Genesee Valley Hunt, the most exclusive hunt club in the U.S. Dexter Rumsey died in 1906, leaving his son and daughter 12½% each of his fortune in trust. Bill Donovan’s courtship of Ruth Rumsey was complicated by the reappearance in Buffalo of Eleanor Robson, now Mrs. August Belmont. She turned up at the Studio Club, an acting group run by Katharine Cornell’s father, where Donovan had the juvenile lead. La Robson requested that Donovan come to her suite in New York each weekend for “drama lessons”. Donovan then took the long train ride to New York City each weekend, causing considerable gossip in Buffalo, where he was already widely known for his philandering. Nevertheless, Ruth Rumsey had determined to marry him, probably because her family was so strongly opposed. Friends of the family stated that had Dexter Rumsey lived, he would never have allowed this marriage to take place, because of Donovan’s age; he was 31; his religion, Irish Catholic; and his philandering. The Rumseys were Episcopalian, but Donovan persuaded his wife to bring up their children as Roman Catholics. His brother was a priest. After the marriage, Donovan and his wife moved into the Rumsey family mansion at 742 Delaware Ave. in Buffalo.

Because of his New York connections, the Rockefeller Foundation selected Donovan to go to Europe on a “War Relief Mission” in 1915, the first of many assignments from the World Order. He was to be separated from Ruth Donovan continually during the next three years. While in London, he worked with Ambassador Walter Nelson Page, William Stephenson, who later “advised” him on setting up the OSS, and Herbert Hoover. Donovan spent five weeks in Belgium as an observer with Hoover’s Belgian Relief Commission.

When the U.S. entered World War I, Donovan helped organize the “Rainbow” Division, and was given command of the “Fighting 69th”. He fought at Landes et Landes St. George, in the Meuse-Argonne sector, where, although wounded, he charged a German machine gun squad on Oct. 15, 1918 with his bayonet. For this feat, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor. His bravery was the subject of wide publicity in the American press, and Current Biography later stated he was the most famous man in the A.E.F. He was with Joyce Kilmer, the poet, when Kilmer was shot down. In 1919 and 1920, Donovan was sent on secret missions to China and Siberia.

After the war, J.P. Morgan established the Foreign Commercial Corp. to float $2 billion in bonds in postwar Europe. In February, 1920, he asked Donovan to make a secret tour of Europe to obtain intelligence relating to these bonds. Cave Brown described this mission, “Having helped to finance the war, Morgan wished to help finance the peace by expanding the House of Morgan’s interests widely ..... These activities required the best intelligence from the best sources in Europe. Donovan and the Rainbow Division intelligence officer, Grayson Mallet-Prevost Murphy, had been retained by John Lord O’Brian’s firm to obtain that intelligence, working in secrecy.” Morgan reportedly paid Donovan $200,000 for this operation.

During his European reconnaissance, Donovan met Adolf Hitler at Berchtesgaden, and spent an evening with him in his room at Pension Moritz. Donovan later claimed he had not known who Hitler was, but that he found him a “fascinating talker”.

In 1922, Donovan was appointed U.S. District Attorney for New York. In 1924, Atty. Gen. Harlan F. Stone, Donovan’s Columbia law professor, asked him to come to Washington as Asst. Atty. Gen. Donovan and his wife bought a house in Georgetown (later the home of Katharine Meyer) at 1637 30th St. Donovan’s first official act was to demand that Stone fire J. Edgar Hoover from the Bureau of Investigation. Instead, Stone, who was Hoover’s patron as well as Donovan’s, appointed Hoover Director of the Bureau of Investigation Dec. 18, 1924. Donovan also became involved in another political football, the prosecution of Senator Burton K. Wheeler. Wheeler was defended by Senator Tom Walsh, one of the most powerful politicians in Washington, but Donovan, against all advice to the contrary, insisted on proceeding with the prosecution. It was said that the charges against Wheeler were “ludicrous”, and Stone asked Donovan to drop the case, but he stubbornly proceeded to indict Wheeler before a District of Columbia grand jury. When the case was tried in Great Falls, the jury deliberated only ten minutes before bringing in a verdict of acquittal for Wheeler.

Such a boner would have destroyed the careers of most men in Washington, but Donovan was under the protection of Herbert Hoover, his associate from World War I. Between 1924 and 1928, he was Hoover’s closest associate. Hoover took him to the Bohemian Club, the sacrosanct West Coast powerhouse where he was the directing figure. Hoover then persuaded President Coolidge to appoint Donovan to the Colorado River Commission, a seven state authority which organized the proposals for the Hoover Dam (later renamed the Boulder Dam by FDR, and still later, renamed the Hoover Dam by Act of Congress in 1947.) During the 1920s, Republican politicians favored the nomination of Dawes for president. Although it seemed that he was backing a sure loser, Donovan worked as Hoover’s top strategist for four years. When Hoover was nominated on the first ballot at the Republican Convention (a tribute to the power of the Rothschilds), Donovan wrote his acceptance speech. It was understood that Donovan was to be Hoover’s running mate. However, Hoover immediately realized that because he was running against Al Smith, a Roman Catholic, he would lose the massive anti-catholic vote if he picked Donovan, also a Roman Catholic, as his running mate. Hoover had no intention of losing his trump card in the forthcoming election. He cast Donovan aside without a second thought, and even refused to consider him for a cabinet post, such as Attorney General, probably the only time in American politics that the architect of a successful Presidential campaign was denied a position on the team or in the Cabinet.

The disheartened Donovan decided to forgo political life. In 1929, he organized the law firm of Donovan, Leisure, Newton and Irvine, with offices at 2 Wall St. He also took a 23 room suite at the Shoreham Hotel for the firm’s Washington offices. During ensuing years, Donovan rarely saw his wife, although they were never legally separated. Dunlop’s biography of Donovan notes that “He always had his pick of feminine admirers. To many of the women he met, Donovan was irresistible.” Ruth Donovan stayed at their summer home on the South Shore of Massachusetts, or at their New York apartment on Beekman Place.

Despite his disappointment with Hoover, Donovan continued to take an active role in national politics. He ran Knox’s campaign for the Republican nomination in 1936, and his firm defended American Telephone and Telegraph in an anti-trust suit by the government. Donovan won handily, which brought in a new influx of business to his firm.

In 1937, Donovan renewed his association with the Rothschilds. The Viennese branch of the family had lost extensive holdings in Bohemia when the Nazis moved into Czechoslovakia. Because Donovan had already established a network of informants in the highest echelons of the Nazi government, including Admiral Canaris, the Rothschilds asked him to salvage their interests. He went to Germany to argue their case, but despite his important contacts, he was defeated by Hitler’s view of the Rothschilds as a symbol of what he hoped to achieve in his battle against “the international bankers”. The Rothschilds were not overly concerned; they knew that World War II was on its way, and that the outcome had been decided in advance.

Donovan won another important legal victory in 1937, when he and a staff of 57 lawyers defended 18 oil firms against anti-trust charges. His clients were let off with nominal fines, and once again Donovan was considered the winner.

His German contacts now invited him to observe the Nuremberg maneuvers, as a guest of the German General Staff. He also accompanied them on a trip to observe the progress of the Spanish Civil War. Although he was there as an invited guest of “the Fascists”, Donovan was soon to build the OSS around the hard core of the Communist Lincoln Brigade. He met Kim Philby in Spain, who was writing about the Civil War as a “pro-Nazi” journalist, a pose he carried off successfully despite his recent marriage to Litzi Friedmann, a fanatical Communist and Zionist provocateur.

On April 10, 1940, Donovan’s daughter, Patricia wrecked her car near Fredericksburg, Va. and was killed. She was his only daughter; there was also one son, David, who married Mary Grandin, Patricia’s roommate at boarding school, and heiress of a wealthy Philadelphia family. Associates said that Donovan never got over his daughter’s death. Because he had received the Congressional Medal of Honor, Patricia was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His grief-stricken wife left for a round the world cruise on Irving Johnson’s ship, Yankee.

On May 29, 1940, William Stephenson arrived in New York with a letter to Donovan from Admiral Blinker Hall, a British Naval Intelligence officer whom Donovan had met in 1916. The letter proposed an American intelligence agency, although we were not at war. Franklin D. Roosevelt sent Donovan to London with orders to develop this program, as an “unofficial observer”. Despite efforts at secrecy, there was widespread journalistic speculation about his mission for Roosevelt. He then made a tour of southeast Europe for the President, gauging the status of the German occupied countries. Although this was an obvious espionage mission, the Germans placed no obstacles in his path. They were anxious to maintain good relations with the United States.

After Donovan delivered his report to the President, he was named Coordinator of Information by the White House. Because he had had no experience in propaganda work, the office was later split into the Office of War Information, Executive Order 9128, and the Office of Strategic Services, Military Order of June 13, 1942. Donovan was placed in charge of the OSS.

The “new” agency was from the outset merely an outpost of British Intelligence. On Sept. 18, 1941, Col. E.I. Jacob, Churchill’s military secretary, was informed by Maj. Desmond Morton Church, Churchill’s liason with the British secret service,

“Another most secret fact of which the Prime Minister is aware is that to all intents and purposes U.S. Security is being run for them at the President’s request by the British. A British officer sits in Washington with Mr. Edgar Hoover and General Bill Donovan for this purpose. It is of course essential that this fact should not be known.”

For some months, Donovan had been living in a suite at the St. Regis Hotel in New York. He and William Stephenson had been meeting regularly since 1940 to organize the new agency. Stephenson was working directly under Col. Stewart Menzies, head of Special Operations Executive, the top British intelligence agency. As cover, Menzies was Colonel in the Life Guards, the escort troop of the King. Stephenson was head of SIS, (Special Intelligence Section). When Donovan had left for London July 15, 1940 on his mission for Roosevelt, Stephenson had wired London, “Col. Wm. J. Donovan, personally representing the President, left yesterday by clipper. U.S. Embassy not, repeat, not being informed.”

This was a replay of the House-Wilson-Wiseman operation during World War I. Not only were the American people left in the dark, but concerned agencies were never told what the conspirators had planned. Donovan’s London mission was a slap in the face to the U.S. Ambassador, Joseph Kennedy. Roosevelt called Donovan “my secret legs”, and he assured Stephenson in a private interview, “I’m your biggest undercover agent.”

In “A Man Called Intrepid”, Stephenson is quoted as saying that after April, 1939, “The President was one of us.” It was also in 1939 that Roosevelt privately told Mackenzie King, Prime Minister of Canada and a longtime Rockefeller agent, “Our frontier is on the Rhine.” This same book quotes Churchill as saying, on the eve of war, “We need Rockefeller and Rothschild.” Stephenson replied, “I can find the Rockefellers and they’ll support us. We can offer our secret intelligence in return for help.”

Indeed, the Rockefellers gave Stephenson an entire floor rent free at Rockefeller Center, where the agency has operated ever since. A later book, “Intrepid’s Last Case” notes that “What some would later call the secret SIS Secret Occupation of Manhattan began in 1990. By 1941, J. Edgar Hoover was complaining that the Rockefeller Center headquarters of British Security Coordination controlled an army of British secret agents, a group of nine distinct secret agencies. Attorney General Biddle was quoted as saying ‘The truth is nobody knows anything about what Stephenson does’.”

Had “anyone” known, Stephenson would have had to be arrested and deported. German sailors were being deliberately murdered by Stephenson’s provocateurs in New York as acts designed to force Hitler to declare war against the United States. The INTREPID file in SOE (Stephenson’s cover name) described it as “a reign of terror conducted by specially trained agents and fortified by espionage and intelligence in Occupied Europe.” Every act of Donovan and Stephenson was a violation of American neutrality. Donovan’s law office at 2 Wall Street was next to the Passport Control Office. He had special passports prepared for Stephenson’s British agents. Stephenson had offices at three locations, Hampshire House, Dorset Hotel, and Rockefeller Center. Allen Dulles had opened a branch office of Coordinator of Information at Rockefeller Center in 1940. He evicted all the tenants on the 25th floor of 30 Rockefeller Plaza, which was the floor above the UK Commercial Corporation, whose president was William Stephenson. This agency was set up after Stephenson complained on April 14, 1941 that Standard Oil was supplying the Germans through Spain, and that it was acting as a hostile and dangerous agency of the enemy. A 400 page report by Stephenson listing Standard Oil and other American corporations dealings with the Germans was turned over to the FBI in 1941. J. Edgar Hoover prudently buried it.

Nelson Rockefeller, as Coordinator of Inter American Affairs, covered up the supplying of German military forces from his South American subsidiaries. Listed in the Stephenson Report were Standard Oil, I.G. Farben, a subsidiary of Standard Oil; Ford Motor Co.; Bayer Aspirin (Sterling Drug); General Aniline and Film; Ansco; and International Telephone and Telegraph. Co. Sosthenes Behn, head of ITT, had hosted a lavish conference of German intelligence operatives at the Waldorf Astoria in 1940. The German director of ITT was Baron Kurt von Schroder, of the Schroder banking family of Cologne, London and New York, who was Hitler’s personal banker.

The OSS was actually set up by four members of the British Chief of Staff: Lord Louis Mountbatten (formerly Battenberg), a cousin of the King, and related to the Frankfort banking families, Rothschild and Cassel; Charles Hambro, director of Special Operations Executive, and director of Hambros Bank; Col. Stewart Menzies, head of Secret Intelligence Service; and William Stephenson, in charge of SIS American operations. An ancestor of Col. Menzies had been a notorious Jacobite double agent during the last days of James II’s reign. The present Menzies was the son of Lady Holford; he married Lady Sackville, daughter of the 8th Earl de la Warre, of the Sackville-West family which owned historic Knole; second, he married Pamela Beckett, daughter of J.Rupert Beckett, chmn of Westminster Bank, now National Westminster Bank, one of England’s Big Five. Menzies’ mother-in-law was the daughter of Lord Berkeley Paget, Marquess of Anglesey. Menzies’ daughter married Lord Edward Hay, Marquess of Tweedsdale, Earl of Kinoull, related to Countess of Errol. The present Sir Peter Menzies is a director of National Westminster Bank, treasurer of the giant Imperial Chemical Industries, and director of Commercial Union Assurance Co. In the British Who’s Who, 1950, Col. Menzies noted that he had been appointed “C”, head of MI6 from 1939-51, but in later editions, he omitted this information.

Ford states in his “Acknowledgments”, “Lord Mountbatten of Burma was a close personal friend of Donovan as one of the four members of the British Chief of Staff Committee which helped Donovan in the formation and operation of Office of Strategic Services.”

The “American” secret service was never anything but a British operation, directed at all levels by representatives of the British Crown. OSS agents received advanced training for the European theater at Bletchley Park, British espionage headquarters. This site was chosen because it was only ten miles from Woburn Abbey, where Lord Beaverbrook’s agent, Sefton Delmer, operated the British “dirty tricks” center and other propaganda activities. Woburn Abbey was the ancestral home of the Duke of Bedford, Marquess of Tavistock. The British Bureau of Psychological, Warfare operated as the Tavistock Institute.

The membership list of CFR members in 1946 reveals the names of many OSS and OWI operatives; Lyman Bryson, who was with the American Red Cross in Paris, 1918-19, chief of special operations, OWI 1942, and a director of CBS; Thomas W. Childs, Rhodes Scholar, Paris representative of Sullivan & Cromwell (the Dulles law firm), exec. asst. to British Govt. War Supply US, British Embassy, Washington, 1940-45, partner Lazard Freres 1995-48, holds Order of the British Empire, leader in English-Speaking Union; Nicholas Roosevelt, American Commission to Negotiate Peace, Paris, 1919, OWI 1942-43; Joseph Barnes, director OWI’s Foreign Operations, organized Willkie’s world tour 1942, coined the phrase “One World”, identified as a Communist agent; Elmo Roper, the famed pollsterSS agent 1942-45; Gaudens Megaro, chief Italian Section OSS 194;-045; Henry Sturgis Morgan, son of J.P. Morgan, director Pullman, General Electric; Shepard Morgan, London director OSS 1943-44, was with Federal Reserve Bank of New York 1916-24, director reparations payments Berlin 1924-30 supervised by Chase Natl. Bank, later chmn Natl Bureau of Economic Research, the Rockefeller propaganda operation; John Gardner, OSS Europe 1999-45, then joined the Carnegie Corp.; Allen W. Dulles chief OSS Europe, director J. Henry Schroder, later first director CIA; John Haskell, OSS 1943-44, formerly with Natl City Co.1925-31.

Another son of J.P. Morgan, Junius, was placed in charge of OSS finances. Paul Mellon and his brother-in-law, David Bruce joined OSS – Bruce was in charge of the London office, later was Ambassador to France. OSS also had operatives from the Vanderbilt, Archbold, DuPont and Ryan families, giving rise to the quip that OSS meant “Oh So Social”. James Paul Warburg, son of Paul (who had written the Federal Reserve Act), was Donovan’s personal assistant in setting up OSS. William J. Casey, present head of CIA, was chief of secret intelligence OSS Europe.

In Feb. 1981, OSS veterans held a gala reunion in New York. Present were Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of England; Julia Child; Beverly Woodner, Hollywood designer; John Shaheen, who had been chief of OSS Special Projects now a wealthy oil man; Ernest Cuneo, who had been liaison between OSS and FDR; Arthur Goldberg, labor lawyer and Zionist leader, later Supreme Court Justice and U.S. Ambassador to the U.N.; Bill Colby, later chief of CIA; and Temple Fielding, the travel authority who began his travel expertise with OSS. One of OSS’ most famous agents who didn’t show up, was Ho Chi Minh.

OSS agents became prominent members of “the new class” in Washington; Archibald MacLeish became Librarian of Congress; Ralph Bunche became U.S. Representative to the U.N.; S. Dillon Ripley became head of the Smithsonian.

Donovan had been chosen to head the OSS because of two decades in which he carried out secret missions for the Morgans, the Rockefellers and the Rothschilds. When he staffed the agency with known Communists, they offered no objection. He had earlier provided unpaid legal help for members of the Communist mercenary force, the Abraham Lincoln Brigade. Now he welcomed these veteran “anti-Fascists” into OSS. Ford writes, “In the OSS employment of pro-communists was approved at very high levels. OSS often welcomed the services of Marxist enthusiasts.”

When J. Edgar Hoover, eager to embarrass a rival, sent agents to Donovan with FBI dossiers on Communist OSS employees, Donovan replied, “I know they’re Communists–that’s why I hired them.” Donovan loaded OSS with such fanatical Communists that they became a joke in Washington. He appointed Dr. Maurice Halperin Chief Latin American Div. OSS. Halperin regularly altered the information which came across his desk to fit the current party line. He often kept his office locked, causing other OSS employees to joke that “Halperin must be having another cell meeting.” After the war, J. Edgar Hoover testified before Congress about Halperin’s Communist background. Halperin later moved to Moscow, then to Havana.

Despite the damning dossiers which J. Edgar Hoover maintained on leading Communists in the OSS, he could find no politician willing to buck FDR’s three White House assistants, Hiss, Currie and White. Eleanor Roosevelt had been one of the most frenetic activists on behalf of the Lincoln Brigade. Joe Lash gave her a small bronze of a Communist soldier, which she kept on her desk for the rest of her life. Donovan even appointed Irving Goff head of OSS in Italy after the Salerno landing. Goff had been commander of the Lincoln Brigade, and was later chairman of the Communist Party in Louisiana and New York.

The Spanish Civil War had created an alliance between American “intellectuals” and the Communists. In “Passionate Years”, Peter Wyden reports that Archivist Victor A. Berch, of Brandeis University, said 40% of the Lincoln Brigade were Jewish. Oddly enough, the “Fascists”, the Falange, was led by two marranos, General Franco and his financial backer, Juan March. March paid for Franco’s return to Spain with a $2 million credit at Kleinwort’s of London. In July, 1936, March placed $82 million of securities in Nationalist accounts. He deposited $1.5 billion in gold at the Bank of Italy, 121.5 metric tons greater than the gold reserve of most nations.

The Communists stole the Spanish gold reserve and shipped it to Russia. NKVD General Alexander Orlov, on orders from “Ivan Vasilyevitch”, a rare code name for Stalin, loaded Spain’s gold reserve on the Soviet ship Komsomol Oct. 25, 1936; it arrived in Odessa Nov. 2, and was trucked to Moscow’s Precious Metals Deposit, Gohkran, $788 million. $240 million had also been shipped to France from Spain.

The Lincoln volunteers surrendered their passports to NKVD officers when they arrived in Spain. These passports were then routinely used in Communist espionage. The murderer of Trotsky was arrested in Mexico with a Canadian passport issued to Tony Babich, who was killed in the Civil War. Gouzenko later exposed a Communist agent in Los Angeles using the passport of Ignacy Witczak. Witnesses saw stacks of these Lincoln passports stacked in the Lubianka prison, waiting to be used.

Ernest Hemingway wrote that “The Spanish Civil War was the happiest time of our lives.” He modelled his hero in “For Whom the Bell Tolls” on Robert Merriman, a Moscow agent who was receiving a $900 a year fellowship from the University of California. Hemingway wrote and produced a film, “The Spanish Earth” to raise money for the Communists, aided by Archibald Macleish, Dashiell Hammett and Lillian Hellmann. Hemingway put up $2750 for the film, and donated all his royalties. He toured Hollywood to raise funds for the Communists, an effort reciprocated when they named his book “For Whom the Bell Tolls” a book-of-the-Month Club selection and a multi-million dollar Hollywood production. This was how one achieved “artistic success” in the 1940’s.

The English contingent fighting in Spain for the Communists included Virginia Woolf’s nephew, Julian Bell, who was killed, and Eric Blair, later known as George Orwell. He was in the front line for 112 days before being wounded. He later wrote “1984” a propaganda coup for the World Order which claimed no one would be able to withstand their power. He concluded “1984” with the observation that the future would be marked by a jackboot being stamped into the human face forever.

Journalists to a man rallied to the Communist cause. A.M. Rosenthal, executive editor of the New York Times, said of his brother-in-law, George Watt, Commissar of the Lincoln Battalion, “God, how I admired that man. He was my hero.” Herbert L. Matthews wrote in 1946, “Nothing so wonderful will ever happen to me again as those two and a half years 1 spent in Spain. There I learned that men could be brothers. Today, wherever in this world I meet a man or woman who fought for Spanish liberty I meet a kindred soul. Nothing will ever break that bond. We left our hearts there.” Despite his despair, Matthews was able to relive the glory of Spanish years when he promoted Castro and a band of six guerillas into the dictatorship of Cuba, through a frenetic propaganda barrage in the New York Times.

Kim Philby, later active with the OSS and CIA as British Liaison also was prominent in the Spanish Civil War. Son of the famed Arabist, Sir Harold Philby, he joined the Cambridge Socialist Society in 1929. He worked for the British Treasury 1932-33 and was recruited by the communist party. In 1934, in Vienna, he married Litzi Friedmann, a communist agent. Witness at the marriage was Teddy Kollek, later a fundraiser for the Israeli terrorists, now Mayor of Tel Aviv.

Working as a Soviet mole, Philby was financed by the Schroder Bank in 1934 to publish a pro-Hitler magazine for the Anglo-German Fellowship. The Times then sent him to Spain to cover the Civil War. He took as his mistress the divorced wife of Sir Anthony Lindsay-Hogg, Frances Doble, a Falangist sympathizer whose Salamanca palace became his Spanish headquarters. The daughter of a Canadian banker, Doble lavishly entertained the Falangist leaders. Philby Frequently met General Franco there.

Philby was recruited for the British SIS in 1940. In 1942, he helped Norman Holmes Pearson, a Yale professor who specialized in the work of Ezra Pound, to set up the London office of OSS with Charles Hambro chief of SOE. In 1949, Philby was sent to Washington as SIS liaison officer with the CIA and FBI. J. Edgar Hoover frequently lunched at Harvey’s Restaurant with Philby and James Angleton of the CIA. While CIA station chief in Rome, Angleton worked closely with the Zionist terrorists Teddy Kollek and Jacob Meridor, and later became chief of the Israeli desk at the CIA, helping Philby to set up the lavishly funded international Mossad espionage operation, all paid for by American taxpayers. A senior CIA security official, C. Edward Petty, later reported that Angleton might be a Soviet penetration agent or mole, but President Gerald Ford suppressed the report.

Top secret files of the CIA and FBI were opened to Philby, despite widespread claims that he was a Soviet agent. Although he helped Burgess and MacLean defect to Russia in 1951, he continued to work for SIS until 1956, under the protection of Harold MacMillan, who defended him publicly in parliamentary debate. In 1962 an Englishwoman at a party in Israel said, “As usual Kim is doing what his Russian Control tells him. I know that he always worked for the Reds.” Miles Copeland says that Philby placed a mole in deep cover in the CIA known as “Mother”. Philby was quoted as saying, “Foreign agencies spying on the U.S. Government know exactly what one person in the CIA wants them to know, no more and no less.” Philby was finally exposed by a defector, Michael Goleniewski. On Jan. 23, 1963, Philby left Beirut and defected to Moscow, where he became a Lt. Gen. in the KGB. On June 10, 1984, Tad Szulc wrote in the Washington Post that Philby was never a Soviet agent, according to CIA memoranda introduced in a lawsuit, but that he was a triple agent. This explains curious paradoxes in the supposed rivalry between the CIA and the KGB, when certain charmed souls float easily back and forth between the two services. Agents of either service are “eliminated” when they find out more than is good for them about this odd arrangement.....exactly as they did to our NATIONAL HERO... HK, Elie HOBEIKA......

“Intrepid’s Last Case” states that “For 38 years there was an official NKVD mission in London whose agents were assisted by both British Special Operations and the American OSS. Only now is it clear that Moscow had received hundreds of top secret OSS research studies; and that the British had supplied guerilla warfare expertise to the chief of the NKVD’s subversive operations, Col. A.P. Ossikov !”

In 1993, Donovan was sent on a special mission to Moscow, to establish a permanent alliance between the OSS and the NKVD. Donovan, W. Averill Harriman, and Lt. Gen. Fitin and Maj. Gen A.P. Ossikov of the NKVD worked out a plan to establish offices of the NKVD in key American cities. On Feb. 10, 1944, J. Edgar Hoover sent a confidential message to Harry Hopkins, “I have just learned from a confidential source that a liaison arrangement has been perfected between the OSS and the NKVD whereby officers will be exchanged between the services; the NKVD will set up an office in Washington.” Hopkins was forced to contact Atty. Gen. Biddle to alert the Dept. of justice to this operation; because of the coming election, Roosevelt prudently withdrew his support for the plan.

Because of their co-operation with the NKVD and the prominent Communists in OSS, General Douglas MacArthur refused to allow any OSS agent in his theater of operations in the Pacific. Donovan went to MacArthur’s headquarters on April 2, 1944 and made a personal appeal to him, but was rebuffed. MacArthur considered the OSS agents more dangerous to American Security than any military opponents. In Donovan’s Washington headquarters, Estelle Frankfurter was caught stealing confidential OSS reports. She was discharged, although her brother, justice Felix Frankfurter, was Roosevelt’s closest confidante. As organizer of the Harold Ware cell, Frankfurter had placed Soviet operatives in many Government agencies, and had put his personal protege, Alger Hiss, in FDR’s office. Frankfurter’s brother, Otto, served a sentence in Anamosa State Prison, Iowa for Fraud.

While Joseph E. Davies was Ambassador to Moscow, the State Dept. in 1937-38 was ordered to destroy all of its irreplaceable files on the Soviet Union. The Russian Division of the State Dept. was abolished, and the last anti-communist survivors were summarily fired.

Since 1935, seven Soviet networks of espionage had been active throughout Europe. Known by their German name, die Rote Kapelle, the Red Orchestra, they were run by Grand Chief Leopold Trepper, who later emigrated to Israel. In January, 1942, Allen Dulles enlisted die Rote Kapelle to form an anti-German group led by Baron Wolfgang von Pultitz, who later arranged for the defection to East Germany of Otto John, head of West Germany’s FBI. During World War II, both von Pultitz and John had worked under Charles Hambro at Britain’s SOA.

General Alfred E. Wedemeyer later testified that in 1942 he had proposed a guaranteed plan to shorten the war by at least a year, invading France across the Channel. Winston Churchill argued for his “soft Underbelly” approach through North Africa and Sicily. Gen. Marshall called Wedemeyer before Churchill and Roosevelt to explain his plan, on which he had worked for months, perfecting every detail. Churchill persuaded Roosevelt to postpone the Wedemeyer plan for another year, while the Churchill plan was put into action in North Africa in Nov. 1942. Wedemeyer’s plan was vindicated in 1946 by Gen. Franz Halder, Chief of Staff of the German Army, who said the Wedemeyer cross-Channel invasion would have been a decisive and timely blow which would have shortened the war by at least a year. However, ending the war in 1943 would have cost the munitions manufacturers many billions in profits. Ezra Pound broadcast on July 17, 1943.

“I reckon my last talk was the most courageous I have ever given. I was playing with fire. I was openly talking about how the war may be prolonged, by fellows who were scared that the war might stop. I mean they’re scared right out of their little gray panties, for fear economic equity might set in as soon as guns stop shooting or shortly thereafter. The stage scenery fell with a flop, simultaneously with some anti-Axis successes.”

What was Pound talking about ? Stage scenery – what a cynical way to describe a world conflagration in which one hundred million people were dying. Pound exposed the charade. Early in the war, a British Secret Service operation, Operation Ultra, had obtained the German coding machine. They were able to read every secret order from Hitler and the German General Staff. It was like shooting fish in a barrel. F.W. Winterbotham, chief of Air Intelligence, SIS, wrote about his operation of Ultra, “The Ultra Secret”. He says, “On Aug. 2 (1944) which I remember, covered two whole sheets of my Ultra paper, Hitler told Kluge not to pay any attention to the American breakout. He then outlined his master plan for handling the entire invasion.”

Had Hitler had access to all secret communications of the Allies, he would have had an unbeatable advantage. The Allies listened to all of his orders, and reacted accordingly. Early in the war, Ultra informed them that the Germans were planning a massive bombing raid on Coventry. If they evacuated the city, it would show the Germans they were listening to their plans. Churchill ordered the British to do nothing. The Germans bombed Coventry, killing thousands of women and children. The Ultra secret was protected at the cost of many British lives.

The British also had a double agent, Baron Wilhelm de Ropp, who was Hitler’s personal confidante on British policy. De Ropp had lived in England since 1910. He married an English wife, but maintained an apartment on the Kurfurstendamm, as a journalist moving between Germany and England. His closest friend in England was F.W. Winterbotham, chief of Air Intelligence. In Feb. 1939, de Ropp took Winterbotham to Germany, where he conferred with Hitler, Rudolf Hess, and von Milch, head of the German Air Force. Winterbotham writes, “By 1934, I had obtained personal contact with the Head of State, Hitler, and with Alfred Rosenberg, the official Nationalist Party Philosopher and Foreign Affairs expert, and Rudolf Hess, Hitler’s deputy. From my personal meetings with Hitler I learned about his basic belief that the only hope for an ordered world was that it should be ruled by three superior powers, the British Empire, the Greater Americas, and the new Greater Reich. I felt that his desperate desire for peace was no bluff. (At Dunkirk) Hitler told his General Staff exactly what he had told me in 1939; it was necessary that the great civilization Britain had brought to the world should continue to exist and that all he wanted from Britain was that she should acknowledge Germany’s position on the Continent.”

Hitler failed to comprehend the depravity of the behind the scenes figures of the World Order who had gained control of the British Empire with the South Africa wealth they had won in the Boer War. This hoard of gold and diamonds represented the greatest influx of new purchasing power into Europe since the Spanish galleons brought in the gold of the Incas. The resistance encountered in this war caused the planners to resolve that in the future, wars would be managed as precisely as any other business operation. Their philosophy of Hegelian determinism called for setting up two opposing forces, thesis and anti-thesis, which would be thrown against each other in conflict to produce an outcome, synthesis.

Between the two World Wars, it was necessary to rearm Germany, and also to back a German Government strong enough to prepare the nation for another war. The same people who had supplied Germany from 1916 to 1918 in order to keep World War I going now backed the Nazis to produce a Second World War. The Schroders and Rothschilds had set up Hoover with the Belgian Relief Commission, in partnership with Emile Francqui, “the Beast of the Congo”, later the U.S. Food Administration, run by selfless men who inexplicably amassed sudden fortunes in sugar, grain and shipping. Two of these men, Prentiss Gray and Julius H. Barnes, then became partners in Schroder Co. The New York Times Dec. 11, 1940 noted that “Baron Bruno von Schröder died at his home here, Dell Park, Englefield Green, Surrey. He came to England in 1900 and was naturalized in 1914. He established J. Henry Schroder & Co. in London 1904 and in New York, 1923. His son Helmut W.B. Schroder now becomes head of the firm. His partner Frank Cyril Tiarks has been a director of the Bank of England since 1912. In 1923, Baron von Schroder bought the Baghdad Railway. The deal was the biggest ever made under cover of the Lausanne Conference disposing of former German concessions in Turkey, and the Rothschilds and Lloyd’s Bank shared with Baron Schroder in the syndicate that advanced $25 million to start the rebuilding of the lines.”

The importance of the Schroder firm between the two world wars is shown by the following excerpts; New York Times Dec. 3,1923; “The first installment of capital for the new currency bank which will grow out of the Rentenbank was issued in Berlin today in the shape of checks in pounds sterling, to the value of 25 million gold marks ($6,250,000) from the London bankers Schroder & Co., whose share in the capital loan is 100,000,000 gold marks, ($25,000,000). Baron Henry Schroder who is the head of the firm, has long been closely connected with German financial interests in the international field.”

New York Times Nov. 25, 1928; “J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp. Finance and Trade Commentary states, ‘If, in the forthcoming reparations conference, the external obligations of Germany are fixed at some reasonable figure, it would be an important step in Germany’s whole economic recovery’.”

New York Times, Nov. 2, 1928: “J. Henry Schroder Co. floats a $10,000,000 6% loan to Prussian Electric Power Co. in partnership with Brown Bros Harriman.”

New York Times, Nov. 14, 1929; “The Prussian State has arranged a $5 million loan from J. Henry Schroder Co. to extend Stettin Harbor.”

New York Times, Jan. 27,1933; “The City Co. of New York and the J. Henry Schroder Trust Co. have been designated as German bond scrip agents by the Gold Discount Bank of Berlin. Representatives of American houses of issue said yesterday that they were without direct advice from Berlin, where the Germans and representatives of other creditors are now conferring. The bankers are represented there by John Foster Dulles of the law firm of Sullivan and Cromwell.”

New York Times, April 19, 1940; “The J. Henry Schroder Banking Corp. has succeeded Speyer & Co. as fiscal and paying agent for city of Berlin 25 years 6½% gold bonds due in 1950.”

A leading economist, Professor von Wiegand, has gone on record criticizing the present writer for statements about the Schroder Co. claiming the firm had little or no connection with Germany, apparently because he had not researched the subject in the New York Times. The president of J. Henry Schroder also issued a denial in 1944 that they had done any business in Germany.

Adolf Hitler had joined the German Workers Party in 1919 because it was supported by the Thule Society, an influential German society of aristocrats and financiers. In 1921, Hitler met with Admiral Schroder, commander of the German Marine Corps. In Dec. 1931, the circle of Friends was formed, twelve prominent German businessmen who promised to donate regularly to the Nazi Party. Baron Kurt von Schroder, partner of J.H. Stein Co. Cologne bankers, was the leader of this group. J.H. Stein then became Hitler’s personal banker. Hitler’s aide, Walther Funk, met with Schroder to discuss the real views of Hitler on questions concerning the international bankers. Funk was able to satisfy Schroder, and the financial support of the Nazi Party continued.

Maj. Winterbotham points out that Lord Montagu Norman, Governor of the Bank of England for more than thirty years, was Hjalmar Schacht’s best friend. Schacht, Hitler’s Finance Minister, named his grandson Norman because of the friendship. Paul Einzig, in “Appeasement Before, During and After the war”, says “On May 29, 1933, Mr. F.C. Tiarks of the British Banking Delegation met with Dr. Schacht, and found Dr. Schact’s attitude wholly satisfactory.” Mr. Tiarks was a longtime partner of J. Henry Schroder and director of the Bank of England since 1912. His granddaughter married the present Duke of Bedford.

On p.78, Einzig says, “Towards the end of 1936 a new firm was registered in London under the name of Compensation Brokers Ltd. which was controlled by the banking house of J. Henry Schroder & Co., and Hambro’s Bank Ltd., with the declared object of assisting with barter transactions between Germany and various parts of the English Empire.”

When Alfred Rosenberg came to London, he was introduced to many leading figures, including Geoffrey Dawson, editor of the Times, Walter Eliot, M.P. Lord Hailsham, secretary for War, and the Duke of Kent, brother of king Edward VIII and George VI. The Duke of Coburg, a close friend of Hitler, had three long talks with King Edward VIII on his accession in January 1936. Edward assured the Duke of his sympathies with the Third Reich. In 1965, the then Duke of Windsor remarked, “I never thought Hitler was such a bad chap.” The story behind Edward’s sudden abdication was that his advisers realized he would not sign the papers for mobilisation against Germany. An American divorcee was brought into the picture. She led Edward off to the Rothschild castle in Austria, while his “slightly retarded” brother George was installed as King of England.

During the mid-thirties, three isolationist groups were active in England, “The Link”, led by Admiral Sir Barry Domvile, and composed of genuinely patriotic Englishmen; the Anglo-German Fellowship, organized by J. Henry Schroder Co. with the help of the Soviet mole Kim Philby to lull Hitler into the belief that England would never declare war on him; and “the Cliveden Set”, who met at Lord Astor’s palatial castle, Gliveden, to promote “appeasement”.

On Jan. 4, 1933, Hitler met with the Dulles brothers at the Cologne home of Baron Kurt von Schroder to guarantee Hitler the funds needed to install him as Chancellor of Germany. The Dulles Bros. were there as legal representatives of Kuhn, Loeb Co., which had extended large short-term credits to Germany, and needed a guarantee of repayment. Allen Dulles was later esconced in Switzerland by the OSS during World War II. Still later, he became Director of the CIA. He had been a director of J. Henry Schroder Co. for many years.

On June 11, 1934, Lord Norman and Schacht met secretly at Badenweiler in the Black Forest, and again in Oct. 1934, to guarantee loans to National Socialist Germany. The J.H. Stein Bank of Cologne and the London and New York branches of Schroder Bank were correspondent banks often involved in transactions throughout the Hitler regime. Baron Kurt von Schroder was a member of the Herrenklub, the most influential group in Germany, and the Thule Society, which had most Hitler’s career in 1919. He was director of all of ITT’s German subsidiaries, SS Senior Group Leader, Deutsche Reichsbank, and many other high-ranking positions (listed by the Kilgore Committee, 1940).

On Sept. 30, 1933, the financial editor of the London Daily Herald wrote about “Mr. Montagu Norman’s decision to give the Nazis the backing of the Bank of England.” Norman’s biographer, John Hargrave, writes, “It is quite certain that Norman did all he could to assist Hitlerism to gain and maintain political power, operating on the financial plane from his stronghold in Threadneedle Street.”

Another Hitler supporter was Sir Henry Deterding, of Royal Dutch Shell, which had been founded by the Samuel family. In May, 1933, Alfred Rosenberg was a guest at Deterding’s large estate, Buckhurst Park, Ascot, one mile from Windsor Castle. Oswald Dutch writes that in 1931 Sir Henri Deterding and his backers, the Samuel family, gave Hitler 30 Million pounds. Deterding then divorced his wife, and married his secretary, an ardent Nazi and German.

Otto Strasser wrote that Schroder agreed to “foot the bill” for the Nazi Party at a secret meeting, and guaranteed their debts, ending up collecting a generous amount of interest on his original capital. (Senate Hearings, Committee for Military Affairs, 1945).

In England, journalist Claud Cockburn led the fight against the “Cliveden Set”, seemingly unaware that three of the Astors had founded the Royal Institute of International Affairs. He wrote indignantly, “The Astors and others clustered around Chamberlain were a set of appeasers who saw Hitler’s regime and their collaboration with it as necessary to maintain the social order they preferred.”

The Cockburns are too self-limited to understand that the “appeasers” collaborated with Hitler only to obtain the world war which was essential to their world program. Hitler was duped into going into the Rhineland, duped into going into Czechoslovakia, and duped into attaching Poland. The advertised belief is that he was amazed at the weakness of the opposition to these moves; in fact, he had been promised there would be no opposition, until he went into Poland and discovered he had been duped.

Once Hitler had served his purpose, these same bankers plotted to assassinate him. We know the names of Count von Stauffenberg and Fabian von Schlabrendorff, aristocrats who tried to kill Hitler, but on July 22, 1984, the Washington Post revealed the name of the master-mind, Axel von dem Bussche. He married the daughter of the Earl of Gosford, Baron Acheson, air attache at the Paris Embassy. Baron Acheson had married the daughter of John Ridgely Carter, a partner of J.P. Morgan Co., whose father, a Baltimore lawyer, had been legal counsel for the Pennsylvania Railroad and many other railroads. John Ridgely Carter married Alice Morgan, was secretary of the American Embassy, London, 1894-1909, and was partner in J.P. Morgan Co. 1914, and also the Paris branch, Morgan Harjes Co. Dean Acheson, a cousin of the Gosfords, also worked for J.P. Morgan Co. and later became Secretary of State. The 2nd Earl Gosford had been Gov. Gen. of Canada and governor-in-chief of all British North America. Richard Davis notes in “The English Rothschilds” that the Earl of Gosford was a frequent house guest of the Rothschild family. This may explain why his American cousin, Dean Acheson, was plucked from obscurity to become secretary of State.

The cast of characters is really quite small in number. The grandson of a J.P. Morgan partner masterminds the plot against Hitler, cooperating with Schroder partner Allen Dulles from his Swiss redoubt of the OSS. Admiral Canaris, in charge of the Abwehr, Hitler’s intelligence services had made contact with the British Secret Service in London as soon as he assumed that post, through Frankfurt lawyer Fabian von Schlabrendorff, a key member of the plot, aided by Count Helmut von Moltke, a member of the German Bar and also a member of the Inner Temple of London. Von Moltke’s mother was Dorothy Innes, related to the Schroder banking family.

During his first two years with the OSS, Bill Donovan accepted no salary. In 1943, he was promoted to Major General, and received pay for that grade. In 1943, OSS had a $35 million budget, with 1651 employees, which increased tenfold the following year to 16,000. By the end of the war, there were 30,000 agents and sub-agents, many of whom were involved in looting, blackmail, and other money-making schemes. Airplanes were often commandeered for mysterious flights to haul huge sums in gold, diamonds, paintings and other treasure. From the outset, the OSS had been dealing in large sums in gold. In the spring of 1942, $5 million in gold coins was sent to North Africa to finance secret operations. After the North African invasion, certain bankers who had been holding francs worth 100 million were suddenly worth 500 million. Large scale currency transactions were handled for the OSS by an underworld figure named Lemaigre-Dubreuil, who was shot by unknown gunmen at his Casablanca home.

The political advisor to the Supreme Allied Commander, Mediterranean was Robert D. Murphy, whose wife was a manic-depressive, and whose daughter committed suicide. He was having an affair with the Princess de Ligne, official representative of the Comtede Paris, a Bourbon and pretender to the throne of France. She deeply involved Murphy and the OSS with her principal associate, a Syrian Jew named David Zagha, who dealt in million dollar estates, gems and antiques. He had large holdings in Damascus, and he laundered millions of dollars of OSS funds through Lemaigre-Dubreuil, until that worthy’s assassination in Casablanca.

The wheelings and dealings have also characterized the operations of OSS successor, the CIA often called “the Central Investment Agency”, because of its many nefarious dealings. V. Lada-Mocarski, president of J. Henry Schroder, was chief of secret intelligence operations for OSS Italy 1943. The OSS secret files later turned up in the hands of Propaganda Due, P-II, a secret Masonic organization which included many prominent figures in Italy. The go-between for P-II and the CIA was Michael Sindona, the conduit for $65 million which the CIA pumped into Italian elections. He was connected with the Nixon law firm, and with John McCaffrey, chief of resistance forces in Europe for British intelligence during World War II, and later representative of Hambro’s Bank, and also with Prince Borghese. Although Borghese had been condemned to be executed during World War II, he was rescued by James Angleton, later Vatican consultant for the CIA. Sindona, McCaffrey and Borghese were partners in an Italian bank, Universal Banking Corp. which was a front for Meyer Lansky and the Mafia. The collapse of Banco Ambrosiano cost the Vatican a billion dollars (later reduced to $250 million), ending in the murder of its president Roberto Calvi, found hanging from Blackfriars Bridge in London. He was declared a “suicide”, but a judge later rendered the finding he had been murdered by “persons unknown”.

Gen. Donovan also had an important family connection with the Harrimans. His wife’s cousin, Charles Rumsey, had, married W. Averill Harriman’s sister Mary. The Harrimans had been brought up on their New York estate, Arden, which had 30,000 acres, a 150 room house, and a crew of 600 working constantly to keep things in order.

Harriman’s other sister married Robert Livingston Gerry, son of Commodore Elbridge Gerry. Their son, Elbridge Gerry, is a partner of Brown Bros Harriman.

In 1939, Donovan had purchased a farm near Berryville, Chapel Hill Farm. In 1945, he sold his Georgetown house to Katharine Graham, of the Washington Post family. The farm was taken over by the Rumsey Trust. Donovan lived at 1 Sutton Place, New York, the address made fashionable by Bessie Marbury, the queen of the international homosexual set who, as the leading power in the Democratic Party, had made it possible for Franklin D. Roosevelt to become Governor of New York.

In 1921, developer Eliot Cross sold Marbury’s “wife”, Elsie de Wolfe, No.13 Sutton Place. The Times soon noted a “curious migration”, headlining that Mrs. K. Vanderbilt and Anne Morgan had bought homes in Sutton Place, “a little known two block thoroughfare”. Mrs. Vanderbilt paid $50,000 for her home; Anne Morgan, daughter of J.P. Morgan, and member of the de Wolfe-Marbury “Hellfire” set, paid $75,000. They then spent several hundred thousand dollars renovating these homes. The Times characterized the “Sutton Place curious migration” as a malicious dig at the well-known proclivities of the new settlers, who would soon make Manhattan notorious as the world headquarters of the homosexual movement.

Donovan’s surviving son had refused to enter the law firm or to have anything to do with the OSS. He had a distinguished wartime career as a Navy captain in charge of landing operations at Sicily and other invasions. At a New Years Eve celebration, 1946, his five year old daughter Sheila accidentally drank silver polish and died. His wife died after an overdose of sleeping pills.

“Intrepid’s Last Case” notes that “a political decision forced the OSS to surrender to Moscow the captured Soviet military and diplomatic code books on intelligence from the nazis.” The greatest intelligence coup in history came to naught after Roosevelt’s three Communist associates demanded that this complete set of Soviet code books be returned to Stalin.

On May 17, 1945, Donovan became special assistant to justice Robert H. Jackson, U.S. prosecutor at the Nuremberg Trials. Although the captured German leaders were accused of many things, they were never accused of having accepted money from the Bank of England, or of being financed by the Schroder Bank. Baron Kurt von Schroder had been arrested and transferred to a British detention camp. A German denazification court later fined him 1500 RM and sentenced him to three months detention. Since he had already been held for that period, he was released. The New York Times on Feb.29, 1948 demanded that he be tried by an Allied Military Tribunal – “von Schroder is as guilty as Hitler or Goering”.

In May 1945, William Stephenson formed the British American Canadian Corp. in New York, later changed to a Panamanian registry as the World Commerce Corp. April 2, 1947. When Germany surrendered, the London office of OSS had ten million dollars on hand, deposited in Hambro’s and Schroder’s Banks. This money could not be “returned” to the U.S. Government without stating where it had come from. As proceeds from dealings in gold and jewels, an inquiry could provoke a Congressional investigation. The principals decided to hold it in abeyance for future operations in the new corporations, whose officers were Stephenson, Donovan, Sir Charles Hambro, Edward R. Stettinius, Russell Forgan of Glore Forgan Co., nephew of James Forgan, first president of the Federal Advisory Council of the Federal Reserve Board, and successor to David Bruce as chief of OSS Europe; Sidney Weinberg, head of the Special OSS Mission to Moscow; Nelson Rockefeller; Col. Rex Benson Menzies of SIS and chairman of Robert Benson Co. merchant bankers; John J. McCloy; Richard Mellon; Sir Victor Sassoon; Lord Leathers; Sir William Rootes of Rootes Motors; Sir Alexander Korda; Olaf Hambro; Brig W.T. Keswick head of Jardine Mathieson Co., director of Hudson Bay Co. Hong Kong Shanghai Bank and chief of Special Operations Executive in Asia, World War II; Sir Harold Wernher, British industrialist; Ian Fleming of the Kelmsley Press; David Bruce; Joseph C. Grew, nephew of J.P. Morgan; and L.L. Strauss of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. The new firm operated closely with Morgan Grenfell, Jardine Mathieson, and British and Western Trading Co.

In 1950, Donovan listed World Commerce Corp. as the only firm in which he held an interest. The president at that time was Frank T. Ryan, director John J. Ryan, both of Bache & Co; other directors were Alfred DuPont, Russell Forgan, Jocelyn Hambro, Joseph Grew and William Stephenson, who gave his address as Plaza Hotel, N.Y. with residence in Jamaica, and listed himself as chairman of the board of Caribbean Cement Co. and Bermuda Hotels Corp.

President Truman disliked the idea of a secret service, and dissolved OSS at the end of the war. 1600 of its operatives went to the State Dept. Intelligence & Research Bureau, others went to the Defense Dept. where Robert McNamara set up the Defense Intelligence Agency in 1961. Truman set up the Office of Policy Coordination in 1948, which by National Security Council directive 10/2 merged into the CIA Jan. 4, 1951 with the Office of Special and Clandestine Services. Although Truman had dissolved the OSS on Sept. 20, 1945, his 1948 directive appointed three men to supervise the organization of a new intelligence agency, Allen W. Dulles, of the Schroder Bank; William Harding Jackson, a Wall Street lawyer who married into the Lyman family, became a lawyer with Cadwalder, Wickersham and Taft, and later with Carter, Ledyard & Milburn (J.P. Morgan’s attorneys). In Jan. 1944, Jackson had been named head of intelligence at American Military Headquarters in London. He was chief of intelligence for Gen. Jacob Devers, and later headed G-2 intelligence for Gen. Omar Bradley. He Became a partner of J.H. Whitney Co. New York in 1947, served as deputy director of the CIA 1950-51, and later was spec. asst. to Pres. Eisenhower for national security; the third man on Truman’s team was Mathias F. Gorrea, also a Wall Street lawyer, whose mother was of the Figueroa family; his father was head of real estate and investments for the Brooklyn Diocese, and his brother was spec. asst. to the Atty Gen of the U.S. 1946, general counsel ODM 1951-52, and vice-pres. RCA. Truman later came to be deeply suspicious of the CIA. He told Merle Miller, “Plain Speaking”, “Now, as nearly as I can make out, those fellows in the CIA don’t just report on wars and the like, they go out and make their own.” Allen Dulles placed a verse from the Bible (John 8:32) in the entrance to the CIA building, “And ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall make you free.” Allen W. Dulles was chief of the new agency; Frank Wisner was his deputy; it grew from 5000 to 15,000 personnel by 1955. In 1974, it had 16,500 agents and a $750 million budget; in all, the National Security Agency had $6 billion to spend for “intelligence”.

The CIA has often been called the Central Investment Agency, not only because of the Wall Street backgrounds of Donovan, Dulles and many other principals, but because of the many commercial operations in which it has engaged (the CIA is always referred to, not by accident, by its insiders, as “the company”). A great deal of stock trading is based upon inside CIA information, buying and selling on the basis of secret intelligence gathered by the CIA all over the world.

The CIA has also spent billions to influence foreign elections, always for candidates inimical to the interests of the people of the United States, but dedicated to the program of the World Order. However, its principal influence has been through its control of foundations and universities. The American people remain blissfully unaware that their Constitutional government with its separated powers of legislative, judicial and executive departments, has been entirely superseded by the foundations, which generate basic policy for all three branches. Monetary policy is generated by the Brookings Institution and implemented through the Federal Reserve System independent of Congress, which has constitutional power to regulate the monetary system. Social policies, originated by the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, are enacted into law by Congress and upheld against all challenges by the Supreme Court. Foreign policy, a prerogative of the executive branch, is entirely based on foundation “studies” and recommendations. Staffs of all three departments are heavily infiltrated by foundation operatives. The CIA functions as the coordinating agency between the foundations and the departments of government. The Washington Post of Dec. 8, 1984 verified this with an obituary of Don Harris, relating that he came to Washington in 1950 as an economist with the Brookings Institution, then moved to the CIA as chief of the Far East and the West Europe staffs for three years. He then joined the Defense Intelligence Agency’s directorate of plans and policy, where he served until 1983.

McGeorge Bundy, in “The Dimensions of Diplomacy”, 1964, noted, “All area study programs in American universities after the war were manned, directed or stimulated by graduates of the OSS: there is a high measure of interpenetration between universities with area programs and information gathering agencies of the government of the U.S.” As head of the Ford Foundation, Bundy was in a position to know about the interpenetration.

The Washington Post, April 21, 1984, noted that the CIA was funneling money to many universities through Air Force intelligence grants or other “defense” operations, including Duke, Stanford, Univ. of Texas and many others. The chancellor of the University of Pittsburgh, Wesley Posvar, had received many Air Force intelligence grants as a retired Air Force intelligence colonel, funnelled through Maj. Gen. James F. Pfautz, head of Air Force intelligence. Posvar is a member of the German Marshall Fund.

The CIA has spent millions to fund newspapers, magazines, and publishers to promote the program of the World Order. Frederick A. Praeger Co. N.Y. an “emigre” publishing firm, admitted in 1967 it had published “15 or 16” books for the CIA. Many writers and journalists have been liberally subsidized by the CIA with travel expenses, a villa in France or Switzerland, and other perks, to produce propaganda for the CIA and its ulterior goals.

The National Review is considered the most influential CIA publication. It consistently puffs Jean Kirkpatrick, Milton Friedman, and other cognoscenti of the intelligence community and the Viennese School of Economics. The New York Times, Dec. 8, 1984, noted the marriage of William Buckley’s son Christopher to Lucy Gregg, daughter of 31 year CIA official, Donald Phinney Gregg, who is now personal adviser on national security to Vice President Bush. Buckley founded the National Review with Morrie Ryskind and George Sokolsky, funding the publication with ample funds from the Central Investment Agency and its Wall Street connections. Buckley’s only known employment was his stint with the CIA under Howard Hunt at the CIA’s station in Mexico City, immediately after Buckley graduated from Yale. Buckley became godfather to Hunt’s children. “En skids” NSCIDS No. 7 gave the CIA power to question Americans in the U.S. about their foreign travel and to make contracts with American universities. J. Edgar Hoover’s influence gave rise to the National Security Act of 1947, which forbade the CIA to exercise any internal security functions or police powers in the U.S. (FBI territory) but Hoover lived to see the act continually flouted by the greater finances of the CIA.

On March 12, 1947, the Truman Doctrine was announced as America’s new foreign policy. On June 5, 1947, the Marshall Plan was announced. Both “doctrines” had originated in foundation studies subsidized by the CIA and were to be implemented under close CIA supervision.

The “new” CIA continues its close ties with the Schroder Bank and other linchpins of international intelligence. Allen Dulles, a director of J. Henry Schroder, and lawyer for the bank as attorney with Sullivan and Cromwell, chose Schroder to handle the vast disbursements of the CIA’s “discretionary fund”, whose financial dealings remain cloaked in secrecy. Secretary of War Robert Patterson was a director of Schroder, as was Harold Brown, Carter’s Secretary of Defense. Paul H. Nitze, our chief arms negotiator, not only was a director of Schroder, but married into the Pratt family of Standard Oil who donated their New York mansion as the headquarters of the CFR.

John McCone, later director of the CIA, was partner of Bechtel-McCone, giant war contractor financed by Schroder-Rockefeller Co. Richard Helms also a director of CIA, is a consultant with Bechtel. Although from a family of modest means, Helms was educated at the world’s most exclusive prep school, Le Rosey of Switzerland, where he became a friend of the Shah of Iran. The Schroder-CIA connection was revealed in a lawsuit in which documents were filed showing a payment of $38,902 to Edwin Moore, on orders from Richard Helms.

Gordon Richardson was chairman of Schroder from 1963 to 1973, when he was named Governor of the Bank of England, where he served for ten years. Richardson, also a director of Lloyd’s Bank and Rolls Royce, maintained a New York address on Sutton Place near Donovan’s residence.

The Cabot family of Boston, descended from Sebastian Cabot, who was an early member of the World Order, has maintained a close relationship with the CIA. The founder of the family, Giovanni Caboto of Genoa, became John Cabot when he moved to England in 1448 under Henry 7th. His son Sebastian accompanied him on his North American trip in 1497. Sebastian had been born in Venice in 1476; he moved to England in 1551, was granted a pension and founded the London Muscovy Company which developed overland routes across Europe to Russia. Thomas D. Cabot, honorary chairman of Cabot Corp. was director of Office of Inter-American affairs for the State Dept. 1951, president of United Fruit, and set up Radio Swan on Swan Island for the CIA; he went on a special mission to Egypt in 1953. His brother John was in the foreign service from 1926, served as Consul Gen. Shanghi, ambassador to Pakistan, Finland and Colombia, Brazil and Poland; he was U.S. delegate to Dumbarton Oaks in 1994, and was secretary to the United Nations organization in San Francisco in 1945 under Alger Hiss. Paul Cabot is director of J.P. Morgan Co., Ford, Continental Can, Goodrich, and M.A. Hanna Co. Lord Harold Caccia is also a director of Cabot Corp. He served on the Allied Control Commission in Italy 1943-94 as political advisor, Ambassador to Austria 1951-54, Ambassador to U.S. 1956-61; he is also on the board of Orion Bank, National Westminster Bank and Prudential Assurance. He is chmn of Standard Telephone & Cable.

An earlier member of the Cabot family, George Cabot (1752-1823) owned 40 privateers and letters of marque in 1777-78, and became the first Secretary of the Navy.

High level CIA plicy was regularly determined at secret meetings at Pratt House, CFR headquarters in N.Y., as revealed by Vic Marchetti, in “Cult of Intelligence”, he describes a top level meeting at Pratt House Jan. 8, 1965 at 5 pm, chaired by C. Douglas Dillon, chmn of Dillon, Read. The main speaker was Richard Bissell, director of CIA clendestine operations. This was the third meeting at this address. William J. Barnds was secretary; his father was Episcopalian Bishop of the Dallas Division. Present were Frank Altschul, partner of Lazard Freres, who married into the Lehman Family. Altschul was chmn National Planning Assn, director of Ford Foundation, China Institute in America, American Institute of International Education, and vice pres. Woodrow Wilson Foundation; Robert Amory, dep. dir CIA 1952-62, National Security planning Board 1953-61; Meyer Bernstein; Col. Sidney Berry former military asst. to Secretary of Defense 1961-64, now deputy chief of personnel operations U.S. Army; Allen W. Dulles; George S. Franklin Jr., lawyer with Davis Polk and Wardwell, asst. to Nelson Rockefeller in 1940, intelligence Dept. State 1941-44, executive div. council on Foreign Relations 1945-71, national secretary of the Trilateral Commission 1972, member Atlantic Council, Ditchley Founation, American Council on United Europe; Thomas L. Hughes, head of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (Alger Hiss’ former post); Joseph Kraft, newspaper columnist Washington Post, L.A. Times etc. Eugene Fubini, naturalised U.S. 1945, technical adviser U.S. AF, Army and Navy on radio techniques, was with CBS 1938-42 with the Secretary of Defense since 1961, National Security Agency since 1965, chmn Defense Intelligence Agency, Harry Howe Ransom, Vanderbilt professor, Rockefeller Foundation, Institute of Strategic Studies London; Theodore Sorensen, Pres. Kennedy’s assistant 1957-61, now attorney with Paul Weiss and Rifkind; David B. Sage, prof. Bennington, trustee Russell Sage fndtn and 20th century Fund. Bissell, the principal speaker, had been educated at Groton, Yale and London School of Economics, was economist with War Shipping Board 1942-45; Harriman committee for President 1947-48, ECA 1948-51, Ford Foundation 1952-55, dep dir. CIA 1954-64, consultant to Fortune, U.S. Steel, and Asiatic Petroleum.

CIA financial operations continually surface and are quickly forgotten. Jack Anderson noted in a column July 30,1984 that two OSS pals in World War II, Joe Rosenbaum, a venture capitalist, and William J. Casey, present head of the CIA had been involved in a huge Mid East pipeline deal with former Secretary of the Navy William J. Middendorf, now U.S. Ambassador to the Organization of American States. Middendorf is a director of First American Bank of VA. which handles many financial dealings for the CIA. Directors of First American are Eugene R. Casey, Lt. Gen. Elwood Quesada, who married into the Pulitzer family, asst chief of air on the General Staff, now director of the munitions firm Olin Industries; Stuart Symington, who married into the Wadsworth family, was formerly Secretary of the Air Force and Senator from Missouri, chairman of Emerson Electric, a defense contractor; Lt. Gen James M. Gavin, director Guggenheim Foundation, chairman of Arthur D. Little Co., (said to be a branch of CIA operations).

In “Spooks” Jim Hugan exposes another firm with CIA ties, Quantum Corp., based at Rockefeller owned L’enfant Plaza in Washington which sold arms to both sides in the Arab-Israeli conflict; chairman was Rosser Scott Reeves III, heir to an ad fortune; his father sold Eisenhower like soap with a series of brilliant TV ads. Reeves III married into the Squibb family, was with Lazard Freres from 1962-7, and Military Armaments Corp. 1972-4. III’s father was a limited partner of Oppenheimer Co. Other members of Quantum were Mitch Werbell III, a CIA operative who had the rank of General, U.S. Army; Edmund Lynch; Stewart Mott; Lou Conein, A Union Corse operative known throughout Southeast Asia as Black Luigi; Walter Pforzheimer, former aide to Allen Dulles; he kept two apartments at Washington’s most expensive address Watergate; one was filled with his documentation on intelligence activities; he was found murdered at Watergate; and Paul Rothermeil, liaison between CIA and FBI who ws sent on a special mission to H.L. Hunt’s headquarters in Dallas to destroy the Hunt Oil Co. After millions of dollars vanished, and the Hunt Oil Co. was on the verge of bankruptcy, the Hunts sued him, but were unable to prosecute because of “national security”.

The sinking of the USS Liberty, a government intelligence ship, by the Israelis in the 1967 war exposed the close collaboration between the CIA and Mossad, Israeli Military Intelligence. The CIA representative at the U.S. Embassy, Tel Aviv, reported to the senior office CIA at McLean VA. June 7, 1967 that Israel had decided to sink the U.S.S. Liberty. The CIA refused to warn the doomed American sailors. With President Johnson in the White House at the time were Mathilde and Arthur Krim, Johnson’s liaison with the Israeli Govt. Mathilde was a former Irgun terrorist who had served on terrorist strikes with Menachem Begin, who boasted he had introduced terrorism to the entire world.

Andrew Tull, in “The Super Spies”, reveals another CIA coverup. The entire operational plan for the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in July 1968 was obtained by a German operative in May; he delivered the plans to Lt. Gen. Jos. F. Carroll, dir. Defense Intelligence Agency in Berlin. Carroll outlined a plan to “leak” this intelligence, which would force the Soviet Union to abandon the operation. Ambassador to West Germany Henry Cabot Lodge was briefed on the “leak”, but received direct orders from Washington to cancel it from Secretary of Defense Clark Clifford. The World Order did not wish to interfere with the planned invasion. The Soviet Union was aware of the discovery, and postponed the invasion from July to August 21. During this period, they were assured by Washington officials that the U.S. would not interfere. With this top level go-ahead, the Red army’s conquest of Czechoslovakia was successfully implemented.

We have mentioned the CIA-Mossad connection of James Angleton. The State of Israel was largely created by a Hungarian Jew named Tibor Rosenbaum, who procured arms and money through his Swiss base for both the Haganah and Stern gangs of terrorists, through his control of the International Credit Bank in Switzerland. International Credit Bank was the foreign bank for Meyer Lansky’s Mafia operations, and also handled Mossad’s European funds for secret operations. Rosenbaum was the mastermind of Bernie Cornfield’s operation. Cornfield’s successor at IOS, Robert Vesco, later fled to Central America with $224 million of IOS fund, and is now the partner of Fidel Castro in a huge drug operation which netted $20 billion profit between 1980-84. Castro’s cut, $50 million, has been deposited in Swiss banks.

In 1965, the CIA correspondent in Africa was Michael King, partners with Dr. Joseph Ghurba in Consultants Rersearch Associates, 509 Fifth Ave. N.Y. He is now Meir Kahane, member of the Israel Knesset and head of the terrorist Jewish Defense League. Part of their CIA duties was to mobilize campus riots against the Vietnam War at Columbia and Adelphi College. King’s girl friend, Donna Evans, fell or was thrown from the Queensborough Bridge in July, 1966.

Another important CIA figure was Robert Maheu, who was Liaison between the CIA and J. Edgar Hoover of the FBI. Maheu later became head of Howard Hughes “Las Vegas operations. His code name in the CIA was “Stockholder”.

In “OSS, the Secret History”, R. Harris Smith states that Ho Chi Minh had made contact with OSS Col. Paul Helliwell at Kunming in World War II and was recruited as an agent. Ho’s reports soon received top priority at OSS Headquarters in Washington, and were placed directly on Gen. Donovan’s desk. Helliwell, who later became consul for the Thai government in Miami, and Major Austin Glass, a Socony Oil official, sent arms to Ho for his revolutionary struggle. Another early Ho supporter from OSS was Lt. Tibaut de Saint Phalle, nephew of a prominent Paris banker.

Journalist Robert Shaplen was later told that an official of Chase Manhattan Bank was parachuted into Ho’s remote headquarters, where he found the guerilla leader dying of malaria and dysentery. With only a few hours to live, he was saved when an OSS medic Paul Hoagland, was flown in. He saved Ho’s life by administering the new sulfa drugs and quinine. He later served at CIA headquarters until the 1970’s, where he was always known as “the man who saved Ho’s life”. After Ho was out of danger, a special OSS contingent, the Deer Team, was sent to Ho’s headquarters in Nov. 1945. The members of this team were unanimous in their denunciation of the French “imperialists”, the colonial government. They boasted that it had been decided at the highest levels in Washington that the French had to go. A prominent member of this team was Capt. Nicholas Deak, a Hungarian, now president of Deak Pereira. He has controlling interests in Swiss and Austrian banks, and operates currency exchanges in the U.S. Canada and the Far East.

The French were dismayed to learn that their “American allies” were training and arming Ho’s Viet Minh forces. Ho was informed that General Donovan represented large economic interests (the World Commerce Corp.) which planned to rebuild Vietnam’s railroads and highways, in exchange for “economic privileges” in Indochina. In Oct. 1945, the OSS sponsored the “Vietnam Friendship Association” headed by OSS Lt. Col. Carleton H. Swift. The OSS armed Ho Chi Minh’s forces with the latest weapons, and gave intensive training in infiltration and demolition to 200 selected men of General Giap’s Army. It was these men who later led the attacks against American troops in the Vietnam War. The OSS sponsorship of the Viet Min and other terrorist groups around the world led Robert Welch to charge that “The OSS has thrown the weight of American supplies, arms, money and prestige behind the Communist terrorist organizations of Europe and Asia.” The Deer team claimed that Ho was a great statesman whose nationalism transcended his Communist loyalties.

To supervise the developing political situation in southeast Asia, Donovan was appointed Ambassador to Thailand by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles on Aug. 12, 1953. Donovan’s assistant was William J. van den Heuvel. After his return to the U.S. Donovan had a stroke in 1956. He kept to his apartment in Sutton Place and rarely went to his law office. In 1957, another stroke left his brain atrophied. He lingered for several years, finally going to Walter Reed Hospital, where he died in Feb. 1959.

The OSS trained forces of Ho Chi Minh kept up a steady onslaught against the French Colonial Government. John Foster Dulles, playing a double game, met with Georges Bidault, and urged the French to make a stand. “We will provide support,” he promised. When the French forces were surrounded at Dien Bien Phu, Bidault, to explain his strategy, read Dulles’ commitment to the French parliament. Dien Bein Phu collapsed after a 77 day siege, and the French government was lost. Le Figaro claimed that the State Dept., the White House and the Kremlin, had made a secret deal to partition French Indo China into U.S. and Soviet zones, as had been done in Korea. Whatever agreement may have been reached, it is a fact that the Soviet Army and Navy now have full use of the Billion dollar Da Nang airport and the vast naval facilities built in Viet Nam by Lyndon B. Johnson’s financial backers, Brown & Root.

One explanation of the fall of French Indo China was a behind the scenes struggle to control the dope trade in Asia. Alfred McCoy points out that during World War II, Lucky Luciano and Meyer Lansky secretly worked for the OSS. Through their influence, the OSS became deeply involved in dope running. After the war, Lansky moved the headquarters of the dope traffic to Miami, where Paul Helliwell, OSS chief of special operations in Asia, was his front man. Helliwell also operated a CIA front in Miami called Sea Supply, Inc.; one of his agents was Howard Hunt. Helliwell later served as paymaster for CIA sponsorship of the Bay of Pigs operation. He opened secret accounts for American mobsters in Miami banks, working closely with Sandro Trafficante and Louis Chesler. Chesler handled Meyer Lansky’s real estate investments.

The involvement of the Mob in dope running goes back to well before the murder of Arnold Rothstein. Although Rothstein was widely known as a gambler, this was a cover for his rise to eminence as Mr. Big of the U.S. drug trade. After he was shot in 1928, Louis Lepke, head of Murder Inc., confiscated over $5 million worth of heroin from Rothstein’s hotel room.

Former OSS Col. Paul Helliwell became head of the prestigious Miami law firm, Helliwell, Melrose and DeWolf. His partner, Mary Jane Melrose, was attorney for Resorts International, a Vesco-Lansky operation in which Nixon’s friend Rebozo was said to have an interest. Helliwell opened the Castle Bank in the Bahamas to launder drug payoffs for Thailand poppy growers. As Thai consul, his Washington correspondent was Rowe and Cork, close advisors to President Lyndon B. Johnson, and representatives of United Fruit (a Cabot-CIA connection), Libby and other large firms. Helliwell was also attorney for General Development Corp., Lansky’s real estate firm which was run for him by Louis Chesler. As counsel for Miami Natl Bank, Helliwell laundered mob funds through Swiss banks. One of his associates was Wallace Groves, who served several years for mail fraud. Helliwell died one Christmas Eve, 64 years old, and had never been charged with a crime. Protected by powerful friends in the Mob and the CIA he epitomized the ties between organized crime, intelligence agencies and the national government, all overseen, of course, by the World order.

Miami Natl Bank, which is now owned by Citibank was known for many years to be controlled by Meyer Lansky. The bank financed the Outrigger Club, which became a meeting place for Santos Trafficante Jr., Philadelphia mobster and members of the Gambino family. Chase Natl Bank lost $20 million in this operation, but chose not to make any complaint about it. Citibank was also deeply involved with City Natl Bank of Miami, whose director Max Orovitz was a longtime associate of Meyer Lansky. The president of City Natl, Donald Beazley, had previously headed Australia’s Nugan Hand Bank, a CIA drug operation. Other directors of City Natl included Polly de Hirsch Meyer, Robert M. Marlin, who operated Marlin Capital Corp. and Viking General Corp.; among stockholders of American Capital are Samuel Hallock DuPont Jr., and Paul Sternberg. Sternberg is also on the board of City Natl. While Marlin controlled City Natl Bank, it picked up the mortgage on the Miami Cricket Club, which was owned by Alvin Malnik, widely reputed to be Lansky’s heir apparent. Another director of City Natl was Sam Cohen, a Lansky associate who controlled Miami Natl Bank.

In 1973, a bank was established in Australia under the name of Nugan Hand. Its principals were an Australian named Frank Nugan and an American, Michael Hand, a former Green Beret and CIA operative in Asia. Bernie Houghton, an undercover agent for U.S. Intelligence, who represented Nugan Hand in Saudi Aarabia, has disappeared, whereabouts unknown. The attorney for Nugan Hand Bank was Bill Colby, director of the CIA. Directors of Nugan Hand were Walter McDonald, deputy director of the CIA, Guy Pauker, a CIA adviser, and Dale Holmgren, who represented both the CIA and Nugan Hand Bank in Taipei. The president of Nugan Hand Bank was Rear Adm Earl Buddv Yates, former chief of strategy for U.S. operations in Asia. Also on the board were Edwin F. Black, a retired general who had commanded U.S. troops in Thailand during the Vietnam War, formerly an OSS operative in World War II and asst. army chief of staff in the Pacific; he served as president of the Nugan Hand Bank branch in Hawaii; Edwin Wilson, who is now in prison for arms deals; and Don Beazley, now of Miami.

Nugan Hand Bank expanded as Australasian and Pacific Holdings Ltd., a front for Air America and other CIA “investments”. General Eric Cocke Jr., a Washington public relations officer, was Nugan Hand’s Washington representative. From the outset, the bank was actively engaged in the drug trade. Lernoux says the bank controlled the $100 million “Mr. Asia” heroin syndicate which arranged a number of contract murders. Hand boasted that Nugan Hand Bank was paymaster for (:IA operations anywhere in the world. In Saudi Arabia, Nugan Hand Bank handled the huge outlays of Bechtel Corp. in its billion dollar operations. Bechtel employees were told they must bank with Nugan Hard. The Manila office of Nugan Hand was run by Lt. Gen. Leroy J. Manor, who had been Chief of Staff of U.S. forces in Asia. The CIA station chief at Bangkok, Red Jansen represented Nugan Hand in Thailand. We may recall that Gen. Donovan, founder of the OSS, had gone to Thailand in 1953 as U.S. Ambassador. Nugan Hand’s important contacts with government officials, perhaps greased with handouts from its huge drug operations, shielded it from investigation. In 1978, despite repeated complaints about Nugan Hand’s international drug operations, the Australian Federal Bureau of Narcotics refused to investigate. When increasing public pressure was brought to bear on the Bureau to investigate Nugan Hand Bank, the Bureau disbanded in 1979 ! It was controlled by the Australian Secret Intelligence organization, which in turn was dominated by the CIA.

Inquiry Magazine revealed that while director of the CIA, William Colby laundered many millions of dollars of CIA funds through Nugan Hand to support political parties in Europe; the Christian Democratic Party in Italy was a principal recipient of this largesse, but other political parties in Europe also received millions of dollars. The World Order saw to it that funds were given only to those politicians who would carry out their program. On August 15, 1984, the Washington Post revealed that the CIA had dominated the San Salvador elections by giving $960,000 to the Christian Democratic Party, and $437,000 to the National Council Party, to prevent D’Aubuisson, a militant anti-communist, from being elected.

Donald Beazley, a former Federal Reserve Bank examiner, was introduced by Admiral Yates at a bankers’ meeting as “the finest young banker I know”. Before the debacle of Nugan Hand Bank, Beazley was found to have transferred $200,000 from Nugan Hand to his Florida bank account. He could not remember what this transaction was for. An Australian Royal Commission proved that the bank regularly transferred funds from Sydney to southeast Asia as payment for heroin shipments to the U.S. West Coast via Australia. It was a regular conduit for payments made by Santos Trafficante Jr., underworld boss and Florida based heir to the Luciano drug empire.

Although exposure seemed imminent, Frank Nugan continued blithely with his deals as a big spender. He was closing the deal for a $2.2 million country estate for himself the day he was found shot through the head in Jan. 1980. He was in his Mercedes on a country road. By his side was the rifle he supposedly shot himself with, although in his last moments of life he apparently decided to wipe off all fingerprints. Police investigators found none on the gun. The investigators also decided that Nugan would have had to be a contortionist to shoot himself with the rifle in his car. Donald Beazley went to Florida; his other associates, CIA operatives Michael Hand and Bernie Houghton, disappeared. They have not been seen since 1980.

For many years, the principal American intelligence agent in China was Cornelius V. Starr. Born in 1892, he organized the Asia Life Insurance Co. in Shanghai in 1919. He also owned the English language newspaper in China, the Shanghai Evening Post, which gave him a dominant role in propaganda activities. He was chairman of the board of U.S. Life Insurance Co. and other companies, as the leading American businessman in China. He was also an OSS agent, and his financial power in China gave the OSS and later the CIA their entree into drug smuggling. After his death, his insurance companies were absorbed into the American International Group.

The American “free press”, known to the cognoscenti as “the drug press” because of Luce’s longstanding China connection, consistently portrays the source of the world’s drugs as “The Golden Triangle”, an area of Laos, Thailand and Burma. However, this is merely a staging area for the world’s drug trade. Review of the News in 1970 indentified Red China as the world’s largest producer of opium, its usual source of hard currency from non-communist nations. The refined opium reaches the “free world”, that is “the cash world”, through Canton and Hong Kong. It also includes heroin, which had been synthesized from opium in 1898 by the Bayer Co., and became one of their most important products.

Red China’s mutterings about taking over Hong Kong when the present lease expires in 1997 allows insiders of the World Order opportunity to increase their fortunes in the volatile Hong Kong real estate market. Red China has to allow the British to operate in this trading area to assure the supply of hard currency from the drug trade. When the British took over this trading area in 1843, they maintained control of the local population through the Triads, the Assassins, as the Hong Society was known, also called the Honorable Society, and the Society of Heaven, Earth and Man. Dan E. Mayers wrote in Fortune, Aug.6, 1984, “British colonial rule in Hong Kong is not democracy. Britain rules by decree in all matters of importance. Hong Kong Chinese don’t have democratic rights.”

Opium began as a cash crop in the poppy-fields of Asia Minor, particularly in Turkey, where it is still an important crop today. In 1516, opium was the official monopoly of the Great Mogul in Kuch Behar. When opium reached China, about 1729, Emperor Yung Chen prohibited its use. In 1757, with Clive’s great victory at Plassy, the East India Co. took over the opium monopoly as part of its spoils from the Indian Moguls. When the British promoted the use of East India’s opium in China, as payment for raw materials needed by their Industrial Revolution (they had been paying in silver), the Emperor Tao Kwang repeatedly warned them to stop selling opium in his country. When these warnings were ignored, the Emperor burned 20,291 chests of opium in 1830, a hoard valued at 2 million pounds. This precipitated the British Opium Wars of 1839-42 and 1856-60.

Because the Communists were financed by the international bankers, the sale and use of drugs have always played an important role in the forward march of Communist hegemony. In 1928, the Chinese Red Army began planting large areas of poppies in areas of China over which they had won control. By 1935, the Yuan Headquarters ruled over vast field of poppies. In 1983, Red China had 9 million acres of poppies under cultivation. The Peiping Government has 101 narcotics factories in operation, which refine from 50% to 70% of the world’s drugs.

In 1977, Edward Jay Epstein revealed the true story behind Watergate. Nixon’s Domestic Council was a group of aggressive young men trying to outmaneuver each other with new programs. Gordon Liddy, trying to break into this circle, conceived an ambitious program called operation Intercept. It was not a surveillance program, but was designed to “intercept” the flow of drugs into the U.S. Nixon in his 1968 campaign had promised to “move against the source of drugs”. A special Presidential Task Force Relating to Narcotics, Marijuana and Dangerous Drugs had been formed, but had taken no action. Liddy got Egil Krogh, Nixon’s Presidential Deputy for Law Enforcement, to introduce the program at a meeting of the Domestic Council. Richard Helms director of the CIA, was among those present. The plan was officially approved by Erlichman in July, 1970 as a major operation against the heroin traffic. There still was no real program, merely a public relations ploy, but, senior staff people at CIA panicked. They feared that their vast Asia operations, funded by their drug operations, could be wiped out. Liddy, meeting with State and CIA officials, says, “I pressed CIA on the problems of the Golden Triangle of Burma; Richard Helms replied ‘Any move in that area would be impractical’.”

Liddy had set up ODESSA, Organisation Der Emerlingen Schutz Staffel Angehorigen, which was ready to begin operations. The CIA resolved to counterattack by setting up the Watergate operation, hoping to neutralize Nixon’s staff. James McCord and other CIA operatives worked out of Mullen Co., a CIA front across the street from CREEP Headquarters. The Watergate job was scheduled for May 26, 1972, but these “highly trained” black baggers couldn’t get in; they came back on May 27 with no success, but got in on May 28 and photographed a number of documents in the Democratic offices. Then they were told to return on June 16; by this time the entire setup was ready, and they were arrested.

Future historians will refer to the Vietnam War as “the drug war” akin to the British Opium Wars of the nineteenth century. In 1964, the number of U.S. addicts had dropped to 48,000 down to 60,000 in 1950. Then 15% of all American soldiers in Vietnam returned home as addicts. The drug monopoly was back in business. Two of the leading CIA operatives in Vietnam during that war are Mitch Werbell from Powder, Ga., and Three Fingered Louie Conein, who wore a gold decoration from Union Gorse, the Sicilian Mafia, around his neck.

After the collapse of the Nugan Hand Bank and the disappearance of its principals, the CIA used the 17 international offices of a Honolulu investment firm, Bishop, Baldwin, Rewald, Dillingham and Wong as its Asian network. The firm handled some $10 billion in CIA covert funds, laundering huge sums for the Gandhi family in India, and worked closely with Marcos’ right hand man in Manila, Enrique Zobel, one of the ten wealthiest men in the world, who handled the investment fund of the Sultan of Brunei. After $22 million disappeared, Rewald was arrested. The resulting litigation is being handled by U.S. atty John Peyton, former chief of litigation for the CIA in Washinton, from 1976-81.

CIA headquarters underwent a change after the arrival of a reputed KGB defector. Yuri Nosenko had been sent to the U.S. to assure American intelligence that Lee Oswald had no KGB connection, even though he had married the niece of a KGB major. Nosenko’s story was “verified” by another defector, Fedora, another double agent who had wormed his way into J. Edgar Hoover’s confidence; both the FBI and the CIA now had a resident authority on Communist espionage who had been identified as a double agent. The Nosenko caused the CIA staff to split into two camps, pro-Nosenko and anti-Nosenko. William Colby, director of the CIA, was in the pro-Nosenko camp, giving rise to rumors that he and James Angleton were double agents, and that Colby had been recruited while serving in Vietnam. Angleton was forced to resign.


Arithmetic of Disdain

There is no democracy in the world that should tolerate Air Raids being done for decades by IAF at its cities, without taking every reasonable step to stop the attacks. The big question raised by Israel's military actions in Lebanon is why all this "DISDAIN." ?
The answer, according to the laws of humanity, is that it is racism, jealousy and pure HATE, to attack civilian targets, for so long in Lebanon, as every effort is made to reduce to rubble any peace, and maximize civilian casualties in Lebanon in order to satisfy the consecutive Israeli leader's lust for violence, destruction and death, in Lebanon and beyond, because of a "culture of Violence" so pervasive in Israel and in USA.
If the objectives cannot be achieved without "clear excuses", the Israelis and the Americans will "invent or Create" a "terrorist Act", in a false flag operational scheme, to get their ways and continue the hegemonic lust for "energy" control and "protection".
Some civilian casualties, that must be "proportional" to their Strategic Goals, or collateral Damage, as they call it, amounting to several hundreds of thousands of DEATHS, in Iraq, or in Lebanon, or Palestine, or anywhere else, is "worth it" in their book...
Casualties that would be prevented by the Peaceful coexistence, is never in the cards for Israel or USA's administrations.
This is all well and good for democratic nations that deliberately locate their military bases away from civilian population centers. Israel has its air force, nuclear facilities and large army bases in locations as remote as anything can be in that country. It is possible for an enemy to attack Israeli military targets without inflicting "collateral damage" on its civilian population, because Israel has received and continue to receive TENS of Billions of US dollars, in order to turn its territory into an Offensive Military Machine, bent on terrorizing the whole area for decades, until all energy supplies in the area run out, then, they might "consider" PEACE.
Hezbollah and others, by contrast, try to protect their countrymen and women, the best way they can, with the little means they have to operate with, and mount a military Resistance structure, out of densely populated areas, because over the years, Israel has forcibly pushed the populations of south Lebanon to head north, in order to escape the brutality if its daily bombardments, and repetitive brutal incursions and invasions of south Lebanon, for over forty years. They launch antipersonnel missiles with ball-bearing shrapnel, designed locally, because they cannot acquire adequate defensive weapons from the WEST, to defend themselves, and they do that, in order by to maximize Israeli military and other casualties, in a desperate attempt to keep Israeli offenses from annihilating whole villages and towns throughout Lebanon. This chorus of futile and "shy" condemnation of Israel over the years, actually encourages the Israelis to operate freely and terrorize cities, towns, villages, Hospitals, ambulances in all civilian areas, all over Lebanon and beyond. While Israel does everything to maximize civilian casualties on Lebanese civilians, in a desperate attempt to foment civilian unrest, and condemnation of the Hizbullah Resistance, a diplomat commented years ago, that Israel "have mastered the harsh arithmetic of DISDAIN. . . . Lebanese casualties play in their favor and Pals. casualties play in their favor." These are groups that send children to schools like everybody else in this world, and sometimes without the child or the parent knowing that his child will ever come back home from school, or might be sacrificed in an Israeli or American Air Raid somewhere. Several thousands have died in these raids in south Lebanon, Iraq, or Afghanistan recently. This misuse of civilians as targets and fuel for American and Israeli Proxy Wars, requires a reassessment of the laws of war and the Geneva Conventions, and the ICC in the Hague.
The distinction between combatants and civilians -- easy when combatants were uniformed members of armies that fought on battlefields distant from civilian centers -- is very easy in the present context. Now, there is a continuum of "BESTIALITY", Made In Israel and USA worldwide, laws must change, in order to take to courts and indict the Barbarians in the Pentagon and Tel-Aviv. Near the most civilian end of this continuum are the pure innocents -- babies, hostages and others completely uninvolved; at the more combatant end are civilians who willingly harbor Resistance, provide material resources and serve as human support; in the middle are those who support the Hizbullah fighters politically, materially and spiritually, just like in the second world war. The laws of war and the rules of morality must adapt to these realities. An analogy to domestic criminal law is instructive: A bank robber who takes a teller hostage and fires at police from behind his human shield is guilty of murder if they, in an effort to stop the robber from shooting, accidentally kill the hostage. The same should be true of Israelis who use civilians as targets from behind F16s and F15s and SAAR naval gun boats, and indiscriminately and brutally they fire their rockets. The Israeli state' terrorists must be held legally and morally responsible for the deaths of the civilians, even if the direct physical cause was an Israeli rocket anywhere. Israel fired hundreds of thousands of mortar shells in south Lebanon over the years, they should be made to pay compensation and damages to all families, towns and municipalities for the damages they inflict. Lebanon must be allowed to finish the fight that Israel and America started over 60 years ago, even if that means military and civilian casualties in Israel . A Lebanese democracy is entitled to prefer the lives of its own innocents over the lives of the civilians of an aggressor, especially if the latter group contains many who are complicit in deliberate terrorism worldwide. Israel will -- and should -- take every precaution to minimize civilian casualties on the other side, because Israel has a history of deliberately executing false flag operations and terrorism with their US allies. On July 16, Hassan Nasrallah, the head of Hezbollah, announced there will be new "surprises," and Israel will be resisted, repelled and Beaten, wall to wall, if it continues its daily aggressions over Lebanon, and keeps occupying the Shebaa farms.
Cluster Bombs and other illegal weapons that are used by IDF, IAF and other rockets will be allowed to be pre-empted by the WESTERN world one day ???? Or their use will be a perpetual, deliberate Imperial Design to keep this whole area on a powder keg for ever? At least until all Energy resources have been exhausted? Israel never left Sheba'a Farms of Lebanon in 2000 and will have to do so soonest. These are "occupied" territories. Yet they serve as launching pads for attacks on Lebanese civilians daily. Occupation does cause Resistance, and, Israel, the US and the UN know that the term "terrorism" seems to cause more resistance to injustice, because it is used and abused in the wrong context deliberately to smear just causes worldwide. The "Western world" has to come to its senses soon, and ensure that these so-called Leaders of the State of Israel cease to be terrorists, and Israel ceases to be a safe haven for a Global Mafia....



- April 13, 1975 - At 10:30 am, 4 Palestinian Commandos, gun fired 4
civilians at the front door of Church " Notre Dame De la Deliverance",
in Ain El Remmaneh, East Beirut. The victims were: Joseph Abu Assi,
Antoine Husseini, Dib Assaf and Selman Ibrahim Abou khater.

These are the "deeds" of Jumblatt and Co.... and his Buddy Yasser Arafat...

معروف جنبلاط بصدقيته وثباته على مواقفه المعلنة. فهو قبل انتخابات 2005 وصف سلاح "حزب الله" بالسلاح المقاوماتي الشريف. وبعد ان حصل على اصوات مناصري حزب الله، قال ان سلاح الحزب هو "سلاح الغدر". هكذا كان يتصرّف مع الرئيس الراحل رفيق الحريري كلما تأخر الحريري في الدفع. مرة كان يضعه في خانة "حيتان المال" ومرة اخرى في مصاف القديسين. مواقفه من سوريا وقصر بعبدا تميّزت بـ "النطنطة" نفسها.. ولا شبيه له في لبنان سوى الساكن حديثاً في "معراب".. وبئس من جمعهما فوق جماجم الشهداء وأجراس الكنائس والأديرة المسروقة وأنقاض القرى والبلدات المهجرة!!

- May 20, 1975 - The Palestinians of Tall Zaatar military camp and the
Syrians attacked Dekkwaneh-Jisr El Basha, in East Beirut. Tens of
civilians were killed and massacred. Some others were beheaded.

The Martyrs and Victims' names: (1975/1976 incomplete)

1. Youssef Habib Bedran
2. Michel Fares Abou Zeid
3. Jean Youssef Shallita
4. Toufic Aoun
5. Tony Erkhali
6. Anwar Ezzeldine
7. Elias Massaad
8. Emile Fares
9. Albert Rahmeh
10. Antoine Youssef Bashaalany
11. Albert Jamil Rahmeh
12. Joseph Jamil El Hani
13. Jean Elias Hokeyyem
14. George Elias Aajel
15. George Ibrahim Abu Shaaya
16. Khalil Kodssi
17. Romanos Ghostine Hashem
18. Tony George Korfaly
19. Antoine Wakim
20. Antoine Elias Wakim
21. Jacques Bakhos
22. Jacques Nasr
23. Gerges Lias Rizk
24. George Awwad
25. George Shehoud
26. Joseph Rizk George Elias Haddad
27. Sami Edward Sfeir
28. Samir Ziade
29. Abda Adwan
30. Farid Philippe El Khoury
31. Gaby Moussa Bakhos
32. Levon Aramouni
33. Moussa Tanios Chahine
34. Maroun Bouyijian
35. Mona El Selfiti
36. Michel Sami Labaki
37. Maroun Raad
38. Nader Daher
39. Nabil moubarak
40. Nada Farid El Haje
41. Neemen Shehade
42. Youssef Gerges Daher
43. Youssef Nagib Abillamaa
44. Antranik Babian

- September 9, 1975 - The Palestinians and the Syrians attacked the
Christian Village of Deir Ashash, in North Lebanon. 3 elderly priests
were slaughtered, hacked and burnt. The people were forced out from
their homes. The priests, "Father Boutros Sassine, Father Antonios
Tamineh and Father Hanna Makssoud", were respectively 98, 77 and 66
years old. The Syrians were wearing the Palestinian's Military Uniform.

- September 11, 1975 - The Palestinians and the Syrians attacked the
Christian village of Beit Mellat in the North. 8 people were killed and
tens were kidnapped.

The Victims' names:

1. Edward Abdallah El Saifi
2. Berhan Tanios Chahine
3. Semaan Romanos Awwad
4. Kamel Chafic Al Jaiitany
5. Marie Nadim Jabbour
6. Romanos Awad
7. Assaad Wadih Makhoul
8. Assaad Massoud Trad

- October 9, 1975 - The Palestinians and the Syrians attacked the
Christian village of Tall Abbas - Akkar, in North Lebanon. 20 people
were massacred. The church was burnt down to provoke a sectarian war
between the Lebanese. The village was partially destroyed.

The Victims' names:

1. Elias Wadih Hanna
2. Gerges Wadih Hanna
3. Adib Elias Hanna
4. Gerges Hanna El Daher
5. Gerges Abdallah Daaboul
6. Jamil Gergi Akkari
7. Michael Hanna Haidar
8. Michael Youssef Mitri
9. Nicolas El Khoury Aghabios
10. Nicolas Amine El Dahr
11. Youssef Mitri Mitri
12. Michael Youssef Bilad
13. Michael Hanna Haidar
14. Milia Rashid Jreij
15. Rifqat Ibrahim Jreij
16. Nagib Ibrahim Farah
17. Nicolas Awad Al Jammal
18. Nicolas Naouss El Khoury
19. Elias Youssef Nader
20. Isshak Ibrahim Isshak

- October 30, 1975 - The Palestinians and the Syrians attacked the
convent of Naameh, the same convent that received and sheltered
Palestinian refugees in 1948. Tens of civilians were massacred.

The Victims' names:

1. George Khoury
2. Halim El Kroum
3. Pierre Edmond Helou
4. Habib Aziz Abu Nasr
5. Pierre Emile Abu Khalil
6. Chafic Haddad
7. Tanios Bshara Abu Khalil
8. Tanios Khalil Abu Khalil
9. Maroun Tanios Abu Khalil
10. Maroun Youssef Abu Nasr
11. Fouad Fares Abu Nasr
12. Albert Hanna Abu Nasr
13. Nabil Edmond Helou
14. Nemr Naaman Abu Serhal
15. Naiim Helou (was burnt alive in the middle of the village)

- December 23, 1975 - The Syrians and Palestinians shelled and attacked
the town of Zahle, in the Bekaa. They killed 4 civilians and injured
Tens of innocent people.

The Martyrs' names:

1. Tony Sader
2. Abdel Massih Haddad
3. Jacques Jaward
4. Khalil El Khoury

- January 8-12, 1976 - The Palestinians and the Syrians attacked the
Christian towns of Damour and Jiyyeh, in Shouf. 50 civilians were
slaughtered in one night. The entire "Selim El Asmar" and "El Azzi"
Family were executed. The Syrians were wearing the Palestinian's
Military Uniform.

- January 14, 1976 - Same executions were perpetrated in the town of
Damour. The Cemetery was completely excavated. More than 180
inhabitants were killed and their churches profaned. The entire
"Cannaan" Family was slaughtered in their beds while sleeping

-January 15, 1976 - The Palestinians and the Syrians invaded and
attacked East of Damour. Women were raped; children of 2, 3, 4 and 10
years old were all hacked. Houses and churches burnt down. 100 victims
were reported.

- January 15, 1976 - The Palestinians and the Syrians arrived at
Abb-Elias, a Muslim - Christian village in the Bekaa. Few days later,
16 Christians were massacred and another 23 were injured. The exodus of
the Christians towards Zahle East Beirut and Jounieh began.

The Victims' names: (incomplete)

1. Jean Mansour Nohra
2. Gerges Jamil Yamine
3. Hanna Barakat Abu Melheb
4. Charbel Tanios Badr
5. Fares Chebli Abu Melheb
6. Nicolas Tanios Jabbour
7. Walim Chukri Hobeika

- January 16, 1976 - Syrian Agents placed a Bomb in Ashrafiyeh, East
Beirut. 42 civilians were killed and Tens were injured.

- January 18, 1976 - The Palestinians, the Syrians and some
collaborators attacked and massacred the Village of Deir Jennine. They
executed 2 Priests and 11 civilians. They were all riddled with bullets
in their heads. (see References):

The Victims' names:

1. Father Gerges Harb
2. Father Youssef Farah
3. Abrassida Choukri El Khoury
4. Boutros Tanios El Khoury
5. Jamilat Tanios El Khoury
6. Gerges Lisha Zeinoun (16 years old)
7. Nagib Gerges Saad
8. Assaad Gerges Tohmeh
9. Abdallah Lisha Lisha (17 years old)
10. Boutros Youssef Nakhleh
11. Boutros Nakhleh Nakhleh (65 years)
12. Antonios Boutros El Khoury (85 years old)
13. Douass Youssef Jabbour

- January 19, 1976 - The Palestinians and the Syrians attacked the
village of Hosh Barada, in the Bekaa and razed it to the ground. Tens
of civilians were executed in cold blood.

The first Victim's name: (incomplete)

1. Antoine Rizkallah Antoun

- January 20 - 23, 1976 - The Christian towns of Damour and Jiyyeh, in
Shouf, were again attacked. More than 260 people were massacred. The
majority of the victims were women, children and elderly people. The
elderly were laid down side by side for a quicker execution. Women and
girls were raped and killed inside the church. Newborns were ripped
apart. Children were decapitated with hatchets. Houses were burnt down.
The Palestinians and the Syrians under Zouheir Mohsen's command, Chief
of Saika, executed this Genocide.

"The massacres perpetrated by the Syrians and Palestinians in Damour
itself reached a total number of 582 civilians".

The Victims and Martyrs' names of Damour: (incomplete)

1. Georges Nakhleh Assaad
2. Walid Chaker El Asmar
3. Toufic Maroun El Asmar
4. Gerges Toufic El Asmar
5. Elham Gerges El asmar
6. Maroun Toufic El Asmar
7. Youssef Massoud Kesserwani
8. Nasr Tanios Nasr
9. Adib Youssef Nasr
10. Halim Youssef Nicolas
11. Tanios Abdah Chahine
12. Iskandar Youssef Abi Fayssal
13. Elias Khalil El Husseiny
14. Elias Farid El Ghaziry
15. Elias Youssef Al Boustany
16. Bassam Habib Abi Haidar
17. Gerges Said El Azzi
18. Gerges Moawad El Azzi
19. Khalil Toufic El Azzi
20. Charbel Elias El Azzi
21. Tanios Dib Chalhoub
22. Tony Ayoub Eid
23. Ghazi Wadih El Ghorayeb
24. Louis Gerges Bouery
25. Michel Elias Salem
26. Michel Habib Abu Merhe
27. Milad Selim El Asmar
28. Wardeh Gerges Lahad
29. Wadih Elias Abu Haidar
30. Nahia Wadih Abu Haidar
31. Najla Elias Abu Haidar
32. Nada Joseph Rizk
33. Micheline Tanios Chahine
34. Milad Maroun Rizk
35. Milia Abu Abssi
36. Youssef Harfoush
37. Habib Elias Cannaan
38. Hassan Ephrem Aoun
39. Hssaybeh Farid Abou Abdallah
40. Youssef Michael Andraos
41. Youssef Mansour Aoun
42. Elias Youssef Aoun
43. Maroun Gerges El Hashem
44. Marcel Tanios Chahine
45. Moussa Elias Aoun
46. Hanna Amine Aoun
47. Hanneh Neeman Abou Nasr
48. Hanineh Wadih Chahine
49. Sami Lahoud Abou Serhal
50. SabeY Gerges El Chouery
51. Souad Antoine El Khoury
52. Souad Antoine Aoun
53. Salma Rizk
54. Seniora Daoud Nasr
55. Suzane Tanios Chahine
56. Saydet Gerges Sadek
57. Chadi Farid Abou Abdallah
58. Shehade Youssef Abou Serhal
59. Chafic Youssef Aoun
60. Sofia Abou Haidar
61. Sofia Selim El Azzi
62. Tanios Farid Abou Abdallah
63. New Born W. Abou Haidar
64. May Elias Abou Haidar
65. Michel Gergi El Ghorayeb
66. Elias Gerges El Ghorayeb
67. Hala Akl
68. Michel Attallah
69. Michel Maroun Rizk
70. Michel Naaman Cannaan
71. Michel Youssef Salem
72. Francis Elias Dagher
73. Farida bou Fayssal
74. Farida Lahad
75. Farida Abdallah El Azzi
76. Fadia Sami Rizk
77. Kamil Sami Rizk
78. Tanios Zeidan
79. Boutros Ghanymeh
80. Tony Geryes El Azzi
81. Elias El Azzi
82. Elias Khalil Demiane
83. Fares Moawad
84. Iskandar Romanos Sherfan
85. Naiim Selim Berdkan
86. Mrs. Youssef El Khoury
87. Elias Selim Bou Fayssal
88. Elias Selim Saleh
89. Elias moussa Aoun
90. Enwan Moussa Aoun
91. Elias khalil El Hashem
92. Emile Youssef El Khoury
93. Elie Youssef El Khoury
94. Boutros Selim El Azzi
95. Georges Selim El Azzi
96. Georges Abdeh Saroufim
97. Georgette Louis El Bouery
98. Joseph SabeY Saab
99. Josepf Farid Abou Abdallah
100. Boutros Najm Abou Abdallah
101. Boulos Youssef Akl
102. Pierre Joseph Rizk
103. Therese Gerges Sadek
104. Gerges Tanios Sadek
105. Toufic Saiid Andraos
106. Gerges Elias Lahad
107. Emile Youssef Boutros
108. Amine Farhat Rizk
109. Ennaam Selim Eid
110. Eugenie Rashid El Metni
111. Gergi Youssef El Metni
112. George Sami Rizk
113. Abdeh Gerges Aoun
114. Afifa Chaaya
115. Afifa Metni
116. Ammeh Youssef Aoun
117. Amoun Michel Ghorayeb
118. Khalil Ghanimeh
119. Milad El Asmar
120. Maroun Hashem
121. Habib Cannaan
122. Saiid Habib Cannaan
123. Saada Cannaan
124. Ghada Saiid Cannaan
125. Habib Saiid Cannaan
126. Ghassan Saiid Cannaan
127. Youssef Saiid Cannaan
128. Gergi Metni
129. Aziz Youssef El Metni
130. Tony Michel Azar (8 years old)

The Victims and Martyrs' names of Jiyyeh: (incomplete)

1. Hassan Eid El Azzi
2. George Eid El Azzi
3. Tanios Youssef El Boustani
4. Elias Abdallah El Boustany
5. Chafic Farid El Azzi
6. Rahil Dib
7. Elias Assaad Massoud El Azzi
8. Jamil Gerges Hatem
9. Youssef Sleiman Amine El Azzi
10. Karam Tanios El Azzi
11. Tannous Saad El Azzi
12. Mariam El Azzi
13. Marguerite El Azzi
14. Suzanne Nakhleh
15. Tarizeh El Azzi
16. Maurice Michael El Azzi
17. Rizk Roukoz
18. Akl Razzouk

- January 22, 1976 - The Syrians and Palestinians attacked the village
of Rahbe, in Akkar. They massacred 25 innocent people and injured tens
of them. They burnt down the whole village.

The Victims' names:

1. Rashed Hanna
2. Gerges Hanna Moussa
3. Gerges Takla
4. Georges Hanna El Khoury
5. Fares Youssef El Bayee
6. Abboud Hanna Saba
7. Ibrahim Sleiman Harb
8. Jamil Jreij Junior

- January, March 23, 1976 - The Syrians and Palestinians attacked the
villages of Kaddam-Deir El Ahmar, in North Lebanon. They massacred 12
civilians and injured tens of innocent people. The Village of Kaddam
was burnt and razed to the ground.

The Victims and Martyrs' names: (check with victims' names in art. June
15, 1978)

1. Boutros Youssef Geagea (Kaddam)
2. Antoinette Nabil El Hadshiti (Kaddam)
3. Hanna Selim El Hadshiti (Kaddam)
4. Hanna Youssef El Hadshiti (Kaddam)
5. Michael Habib El Hadshiti (Kaddam)
6. Michael Tannous El Hadshiti (kaddam)
7. Nawwaf El Hadshiti (Kaddam)

- March 10, 1976 - The Khyam Barrack was attacked. Over 30 Lebanese
soldiers were executed in cold blood.

- March 15, 1976- The Saika Army shelled Kobeyyat-Akkar for several
weeks before the invasion. Tens were killed and hundreds were injured.

The first victim's name: (incomplete)

1. George Tanios Najem

- April 4, 1976- Dr. Kamal Youssef El Hajj, Dr. in Philosophy at the
Lebanese University of Beirut, was assassinated in Chbaniye, Baabda.
Syrian Agents split open his scull with an axe, as a warning to every
Lebanese Great Theorist.

- April 17, 1976 - A French Sniper, hired by the Palestinians,
confessed executing 197 Christian civilians.

-May 1-2, 1976 - The Palestinians launched 2000 shells over the Regions
of East and West Beirut. 100 civilians were killed and hundreds were

- May 16, 1976 - Edward Saab, Chief Editor of L'Orient-le Jour and
Press Correspondent of the French Newspaper, Le Monde, was
assassinated. It was a Syrian Warning to muzzle the Lebanese Media.

On May the 17th, The Newspapers reported 700 victims (dead and
injured), in East, West and the suburbs of Beirut, during the first 17
days. (see References)

- May 27, 1976 - Linda Jumblat, sister of Kamal Jumblat, was
assassinated in her home, in Sami El Solh, East Beirut. Syrian
collaborators shot her in the head. Her 2 daughters were seriously
injured. It was the first warning addressed to her brother the Druze
leader, Kamal Jumblat.

- June 1, 1976 - The Syrian Army invaded Lebanon under the name of the
Palestinian Liberation Army. They attacked the region of Akkar and
shelled all the regions under Muslim domination. They sacked the towns
and villages. They killed over 500 civilians.

- June 4-5, 1976 - The Syrian Army invaded Aintoura, the Metns,
Tarshish and Zaarour, injuring Tens of its inhabitants.

- June 16, 1976 - The American Ambassador of Beirut, Francis Edward
Meloy, was assassinated along with his Counselor, Robert Warring and
the Lebanese driver, Zohair Moghrabi.

- June 29 to August 12, 1976 - The Palestinians and Syrians from Tall
El Zaatar military Camp and Jisr El Basha, massacred and killed
hundreds of civilians and militants before the fall of the Camp.

The Martyrs' names: (see also art. May 20, 1975)

1. Gaby Selim El Aamoud - June 22-76
2. Nazih Michel El Alam - July 2-76
3. Ghawi Fouad Ghawi - July 3-76
4. Kamal Khawand - July 76
5. Kamil Elias El Helou - June76
6. Artine Shabotian - July 1-76
7. Michel Gerges Makhlouf May 5-76
8. Michel Youssef Tawk - June 25-76
9. Mounir Antoine Ziyade - July 76
10. Mansour Joseph Chaanine - July 12-76
11. Mounir Joseph El Asmar - June 29-76
12. Massoud Korkis Massoud - July 76
13. Moussa Rahil El Ghoul - July 76
14. Michel Abou Gerges - July 76
15. Michel Abou Abboud - July 76
16. Michel Abou Zeid - July 76
17. Maroun Joseph Farhat - July15-76
18. Mahrouss Gerges El Khoury and his son.
19. Mahrouss Gerges Khashan - June 7-76
20. Nabil Youssef El Asmar - July 1-76
21. Nemr Saad El Hage - June76
22. Nawal Zeidan - June 76
23. Nazih Fouad Rizk - June 16-76
24. Nabil Philippe El Jbeily - July 7-76
25. Nawal Abu Zeiydan - July 76
26. Nazih Fouad Rizk - July 76
27. Nabil Youssef El Bashaalany - June 13-76
28. Nabih Boutros El Barrak - June 28-76
29. Nagib Elias Rahme - June 18-76
30. Nagib Aziz Nohra - -76
31. Nakhleh youssef Keyrouz - July 76
32. Wadih Antoine Abi khalil - July 11-76
33. William Hawi - July 13-76
34. Wahib Youssef Keyrouz - August 10-76
35. Youssef Keyrouz - August 10-76
36. Youssef Boutros El Ghabri - August 76
37. Youssef Sassine Abi khalil - July 76
38. Youssef Chekkri Nakhoul - July 76
39. Youssef Hanna Chehade - July 76
40. Youkzan Wajih Rahme - July 10-76
41. Youssef Hanna Keyrouz - June 23-76
42. Aata Abboud El Boustany - July 19-76
43. Abdah Boulos Ghanem - July 76
44. Yerfan Jamil Haddad - july 10-76
45. AbdelMassih Georges Mansourati - August 28-76
46. Francis Michael Blouz - July 76
47. Fares Yamine - April 76
48. Fouad Emile Abou Jaoude - July 7-76
49. Fawzi Iskandar Kaawad - July 9-76
50. Freddy Youssef Nasrallah - June22-76
51. Elias Jean Melki -June 76
52. Emile Antoine Abi Khalil- Juillet 76
53. Elias Fares Njeim - Juillet 76
54. Adib Antoine Al Chidiac - Juillet 8-76
55. Emile Youssef El Rahi - Juillet 76
56. Elie Hayek - June 76
57. Elie Youssef El Bachaalany - June 20-76
58. Ibn Said Basmagy - June 76
59. Estephan Zoueyni Tawki - July 20-76
60. Alfred George Skaff - August 12-76
61. Antoine Zakhour Haddad - June 76
62. Antoine Youssef El Bachaalany - August 22-76
63. Anyes Ezzat Abou Ghanem - June 23-76
64. Elie Fouad Semmaan - June 23-76
65. Ibrahim Elias Abi Merhi - May 20 76
66. Elias naiim Abou Melheb - June 10-75
67. Emile Youssef Boutros - July 76
68. Edmond Selim Bou Karam - July 76
69. Ibrahim Gerges Khashan - December 15-76
70. Antoine Moussa Menhel - July 16-76
71. Boutros Malek - july 76
72. Bchara Antoine Bercha - June 21-76
73. Boutros Chedid - june 76
74. Behzed Ibrahim Karam January 24-76
75. Pierre Joseph Hayek - June 26-76
76. Pierre Youssef Matar - June 22-76
77. Pierre Youssef Estephan - July 1-76
78. Bchara Chahine Obeid - August 10-76
79. Boutros Yassaf Chedid - August 9-76
80. Georges Youssef Tawk - June 14-76
81. Joseph Rahmeh - July 76
82. Joseph Francis Rahmeh - September 13-76
83. Joseph Hanna Mansour - July 76
84. Joseph Sassine Abi Khalil - July 11-76
85. Jean Isshaya Akiki - June 29-76
86. Georges Awwad - June 76
87. Georges Fares Njeim - May 76
88. Georges Isshaya Khalifeh - June 27-76
89. Georges Naaemtallah Saade - May 76
90. Joseph Elias Saade - June 25-76
91. Joseph Nehme - June 76
92. Jean Hokeyyem - July 76
93. Jean Mounssef - July 76
94. Gerges Elias Tadi - May 18-76
95. Georges Talej - July 76
96. Georges Assaf Bashaalany - June 28-76
97. Georges Fouad Abi Ghanem - June 22-76
98. Georges Malak - July 76
99. Georges Nadri El Hashem - July 16-76
100. Joseph Abou Khalil - July 12-76
101. Joseph Saiid Bassemji - July 76
102. Joseph Chamoun Ghazal - August 10-76
103. Georges Ibrahim Amouss - July 76
104. Joseph Touma - July 76
105. Georges Hayiini - August 1 -76
106. Joseph Sfeir - August 76
107. Joseph Souma - June 76
108. Joseph Awwad - June 76
109. Joseph Ragheb Bilal - July 76
110. Joseph Rahmeh - August 76
111. Georges Fouad Ghanem - June 22-76
112. Georges Halim Chamoun - July 14-76
113. Georges Abdelnour Tahhan - August 11-76
114. Georges Aoun - June 28-76
115. Georges Assaf Bashaalany - June 28-76
116. Georges Gerges Chehoud - July 1-76
117. Georges Kamel El Haddad - July 3-76
118. Georges Chafic Chehoud - June 28-76
119. Jean Georges Saade - July 4-76
120. Joseph Najib Semaan - July 19-76
121. Habib Georges Abi Khalil - July 76
122. Harb Isshaya Nakhleh - August 76
123. Hanna Melki Kebbro - July 76
124. Kristo Hanna Lebss - June 27-76
125. Khalil Makdessi - July 22-76
126. Robert Gerges Youssef - June 29-76
127. Rogers Michel Abou Jaoude - June 30-76
128. Roukoz Halim Salem - June 27-76
129. Raymond R. El Jamil - May 14-76
130. Raymond Salameh - May 14-76
131. Razzouk Semaan Nabhan - June 26-76
132. Rizkallah Youssef Ghanem - August 20-76
133. Rachid Nadrah Sarkis - June 15-76
134. Raymond Hawlo El Barrak - July 18-76
135. Zakariya Ibrahim Jabli - June 76
136. Saadallah Michel El Howayek - June 21-76
137. Samir Estephan Ziyade - July 76
138. Samir Youssef Blouz - May 76
139. Saydet Jamil El Khayyat - July 19-76
140. Sami Milad Shehade - June 25-76
141. SabeY Toufic Abou Habib - July 76
142. Samir chafic Abi Rashed - July 20-76
143. Sleiman Michel Gerges - August 7-76
144. Samir Hassib Khazzam - July 23-76
145. Charbel Antonios Makhlouf - August 76
146. Charbel Boutros Abi Ramia - July 12-76
147. Charbel Gerges Matta - July 12-76
148. Charles Youssef Madi - June 27-76
149. Chamoun Mrad Chamoun - July 76
150. Charbel Fares Njeim - June 76
151. Chafic Chafic El Tann - May 26-76
152. Tanios Ibrahim Jabbour - July 20-76
153. Tanios Youssef Yarq - June 76
154. Tanios Matar - June 76
155. Tony Assaad Raad - june 27-76
156. Tony Zeydan - June 76
157. Tony Fares El Azzi - July 6-76
158. Tony Gerges El Azzi - July 76
159. Tanios Hanna Matar - June 76
160. Tony Isshayya Lebboss - July 76

- July 5th, 1976 - The Syrians and Palestinians attacked the village of
Shekka, in North Lebanon, to commit Genocide of 95 civilians. Hundreds
of others got killed and injured before and after that tragic date.
Women, children and elderly were slaughtered, decapitated in cold blood
and burnt alive.

The Victims and Martyrs' names:

1. Francis Karam
2. George Morkos
3. George Saba
4. John Andary
5. Habib Bassil
6. Elias Nafaa
7. Bakhos I. Fares
8. Habib Fares
9. Kouzhaya Bou Ghariyos
10. Marcel Al Hosri
11. Liza John Dib
12. Chief Officer Moussa Sarkis
13. Pierre Abi Badra
14. Gerges Fares Sarkis
15. Nouhra. Al Bahri
16. Joseph T. Romanos
17. Raymond Obeid
18. Antoine Al Dayri
19. Bshara Nafaa
20. Nagib Nafaa
21. Sayed Tanios El Alam
22. Joseph Doumit Isshaac
23. Samir Nagib
24. Youssef Nagib
25. Soldier Estephan Sleiman
26. Michel Aoun
27. Fayyad Tohmeh
28. Raymond Sahyoun
29. Hanna Sahyoun
30. Elie Mashaalany
31. Sleiman Saydi (70 years old, was beheaded. His head was sent and
impaled in the city of Tripoli: a way of terrorizing and imposing the
Syrian's rules).
32. Habib Shahda (was beheaded. His head was sent and impaled in the
city of Tripoli.)
33. Jamil Harb (80 years old, was tied up to his bed and burnt alive).
34. Dib Al Shammas
35. Aghnatios Abi Shahine
36. Fadwa A. Abi Shahine
37. Sleiman Abi Hanna Shalfoun (70 years old, was stabbed in the
38. Yorgaqi Masturi (was executed then burnt in his house).
39. Nazla Y. Masturi (was executed then burnt in his house).
40. Josephine Y. Masturi (was executed then burnt in his house).
41. Maurice Al Hellal
42. Fayez Farah (was shelled inside his car and burnt alive).
43. Bahiya R. Farah (was shelled inside his car and burnt alive).
44. Michel Nassar
45. Wadad Nassar
46. Ibrahim Al Dayri (was executed inside his car).
47. Gerges Al Hedd
48. Gerges Mansour
49. Mary Younes
50. Paulette Al Atiq (14 years old was executed).
51. George J. Khoury (was slaughtered).
52. Layla J. Khoury (was slaughtered).
53. Mhabbe S. Khoury (was slaughtered).
54. Barjout K. Hanna Shalfoun (was slaughtered)
55. Rida kandlaft
56. Evelyne Kandlaft
57. Antoinette M. Azar and her Mother (were burnt alive in their car).
58. Mikhael Azar and his Son (were burnt alive in their car).
59. Shallita Romanos (70 years old and paraplegic was gun fired. His
body was ripped apart with more than 20 bullets).
60. Alya Haddad Romanos
61. George Al Shammas
62. Alfred Haddad
63. Ghassan Al Shammas
64. Wadih Nasr
65. Mme Mario Nassar
66. Jalil Razzouk (was tied up to a car and dragged until death).
67. Doumit Saade (80 years old was executed).
68. Mantoura Doumit Saade
69. Elias Moarbes
70. Mme Moarbes
71. Badawi Moarbes
72. Samir Moarbes
73. Joseph Darjaty
82. Michel Beyrouthy and 7 members of his family.
83. Shallita Harb
84. George Shallita Harb
85. Semaan I. Harb
86. Milad Gerges Harb
87. Saba Elias Saba
88. Tony Dib Shaker
89. Mme Shaker (90 years old, was executed).
90. Edward Khoury
91. Antoine Raad
92. Issa Issa
93. Khalil Abboud
94. Nabih Sleiman
95. Nabil Semaan
96. Nouhad F. Assaf
97. Karam Naasa (was tied up to a car and dragged to Tripoli until he
passed away).
103. 6 Martyrs from Alma village (were mutilated and executed just by
passing through Shekka).
104. Francis Assaf
105. Charles Dergham
106. Pierre Michel Karim
107. Camille F. Hadmouss
108. Manuel A. Qaadan
109. Chief Officer Charbel Tannous
110. Nabil Youssef
111. George Al Haddad
112. Youssef El Howayek
113. Johnny Ghanem
114. Elias B. Dagher
115. Mounir S. Semmaan
116. Abdo Issa Al Sabyini (All his members were chopped up with
117. Sayed Abdo Al Sabyini (was executed after being forced to watch
his father's tragic death).

- July 30, 1976- Dr. Khalil Salem, General Director in the Ministry of
Finance, was kidnapped. He was found, 3 days later, fiercely mutilated
with his organs ripped out, in the trunk of his car, in Amioun - Koura.
It was a Syrian Warning to every Prominent Lebanese figure.

- July 21 to August 5, 1976 - The Palestinians and the Syrian Army
shelled all the regions of East Beirut. 162 civilians killed and 310
injured were reported. In the Region of Nabaa, in East Beirut, Tens of
civilians and militants were reported killed and massacred by the

The Martyrs' names of Nabaa:

1. Nawal Tohmeh Zeydan
2. Wadih Khattar El Arja
3. Nadri Elias El Hashem
4. Moussa Adib Younes
5. Fadi Joseph El Mneiyer
6. Maroun Elias Radi
7. Iqab Boutros El Droubi
8. Elias Youssef Nader
9. Edward George Ghawi
10. Alfred Haddad
11. Bshara Sabeh Bshara
12. Paul Bhouss
13. Paul Melki
14. Boulos Hanna Qoneisser
15. George Tannous Germanos
16. Joseph Daoud El Howayek
17. George Naiim Salameh
18. George Mansour Salameh
19. Joseph Makdessi
20. Joseph Mansour Salameh
21. Joseph Dib Dib
22. Hanna Tanios Shallita
23. Hanna Michael Nassif
24. Dib Saad El Saad
25. David Antoun El Kik
26. Rizkallah Fnoun
27. Simon Asshak El Khoury
28. Charles Sfeir
29. Charles Bshara Shawish
30. Tony Joseph Irani
31. Tony Tanios El Hkayyem
32. Tony Joseph Raad
33. Tony Nagib El Shawish
34. Tanios Youssef Atiyeh
35. Tony Tohmeh Abu Zeydan
36. Youssef Dib El Chidiac

- October 4, 1976- Dr. Robert Khalaf, Professor at the American
University of Beirut, was assassinated in Souk El Gharb, Aley. As
usual, it was a Syrian Warning to the Educational Corps.

- October 18, 1976- The Syrian Army shelled Ashrafiyeh, Furn el
Shebbak, Ain El Remmaneh and Jounieh. 25 civilians were killed and 100
were seriously injured.

- October 19-21, 1976 - The Palestinians and the Syrians attacked the
Village of Aishiyeh and committed a real Genocide. The majority of the
victims were women, children and elderly. Women and girls were raped
then slaughtered inside the church. Newborns were ripped apart.
Children were decapitated with hatchets. Houses were burnt down. The
rest escaped to another region. Francis Alfred Nasr was burnt alive
before his father's eyes.

The victim's names:

1. Francis Alfred Nasr (burnt alive).
2. Alfred Youssef Nasr
3. Fouad Gerges Najem (his wife and his 4 children).
4. Elias Fouad Najem
5. Amale Fouad Najem
6. Therese Fouad Najem
7. Georges Fouad Najem
8. Georgette Fouad Najem
9. Loutfallah Youssef El Chaar
10. Joseph Loutfallah El Chaar
11. Attallah Youssef El Chaar
12. Phillipe Sleiman Chedid
13. Albert Chahine Milan
14. Ibrahim Ephrem Nasr
15. Sleiman Ephrem Nasr
16. Tony Ibrahim Nasr (14 years old)
17. Jamil Elias Nasr
18. Nassim Jamil Nasr
19. Selim Jamil Nasr (16 years old).
20. Youssef Selim Nasr
21. Youssef Nasr Nasr
22. Antoinette Nasr Nasr
23. Simon Youssef Nasr
24. Fouad youssef Nasr (new born).
25. Toufic Nasr (70 years old).
26. Melhem Ephrem Ephrem (45 years old)
27. Sleiman Ephrem (25 years old).
28. Ibrahim Selim Aoun
29. Raymond Ibrahim Aoun (15 years old).
30. Melhem Mansour Aoun (73 years old)
31. Soldier Youssef Elias Abou Kheir (executed in the church).
32. Sleiman Ajjaj El Hajj (15 years old, executed in the church)
33. Pierre Naaemtallah Jabbour (13 years old, executed in the church).
34. Therese Fayez Najem
35. Najat Fayez Najem
36. Fayez Najem and his 2 daughters (5 and 3 years old).
37. Mountaha Rizk Najem
38. Karim Selim Najem
39. Youssef Tannous Abou Eid
40. Tannous Youssef Abou Eid
41. Ibrahim Elias Aoun
42. Jean Khalil Aoun
43. Gerges Maroun Aoun
44. Sleiman Ajjaj Aoun.
45. Tammam Abou Kheir Aoun
46. Assaad Melhem Anid
47. Elias Youssef Anid
48. Aziz Youssef Anid
49. Boulos Anid
50. Elias Assaad El Kesserwani
51. Youssef Assaad El Kesserwani
52. Boutros Fares Fares
53. Gerges Ibrahim Nasr
54. Ibrahim Selim Nasr
55. Joseph Farid Nasr
56. Khalil Gergy Nasr
57. Khalil Sleiman Nasr
58. Salwa Youssef Mezher
59. Philippe Toufic Afif
60. Majid Elias Afif
61. Melhem Chekri Honeineh
62. Nemr Rashid Abou Samra
63. Youssef Elias Noura

-Taalabaya, Jwar el Hoz, Aintoura, Abaydiyeh, Araya, Chebanieh, Maasser
Beiteddine...villages were partially or completely destroyed and its
inhabitants massacred.

The Victims of Maasser Beiteddine: (28/10/1976)

1. Jean Tanios Melhem Hanna
2. Mariam Melhem Hanna
3. Bahia Tanios Melhem Hanna
4. Selim Michael Rashed
5. Fouad Sleiman Rashed
6. Linda Fouad Sleiman Rashed
7. Toufic Assaad Saiid
8. Saadeh Michael Saiid
9. Georges Michael Saiid
10. Caroline Michael Saiid
11. Nada Michael Saiid
12. Wardiyeh Milad Saiid
13. Toufic Milad Saiid
14. Najat Milad Saiid

- The Zone of the Quarantina in Beirut was the main base where hundreds
of arrests and executions were taking place.

- March 16, 1977 - The Syrian Agents assassinated the Druze Leader,
Kamal Jumblatt, along with his bodyguards. The Palestinians, the
Syrians and their Collaborators attacked the villages of the Shouf:
Barouk, Botmeh, Kfarnabrakh, Mazraat El Shouf, Maaser El Shouf,
Mashghara and Brih. They massacred 107 of its Christian inhabitants to
activate religious frictions between the Christians and the Druze, in
the whole Shouf. Several times, Mr. Kamal Jumblat, as leader of the
PSP, progressive socialist party, openly accused the Syrians for
wickedly interfering in the Lebanese internal affairs.

- June 4, 1977 - Syrian Agents placed a Bomb near yesuuY el Malaq
Convent, (King Jesus), in Zouk Michael, Kesserwan. 1civilian was killed
and 13 were injured.

- August 21, 1977 - The Palestinians and their collaborators attacked
the village of Brih in Shouf and committed Genocide of 20 civilians to
reactivate religious frictions in the Area. (see References)

The Victims' names: (incomplete)

1. Camille Chalhoub
2. Melhem Shoukrallah El-Kawkabani
3. Farida Khalil Khalil
4. Amalia Hassoun
5. Sariyah Hassoun
6. Eugenie Hassoun
7. Karim Melhem Hassoun
8. Nabih Abi Hanna
9. Ibrahim Gergi Lahoud
10. Michel Melhem Khalil
11. Mrs. Fares Kamar
12. Nabihat Chalhoub
13. Marta Touma

- February 8, 1978 - The Syrian Army attacked the Lebanese Army at the
caserne "Chukri Ghanem" of Fayadiyeh. At 5.30 am, the Syrians shelled
all the Regions of East Beirut and opened fire towards the caserne.
Lieutenant Abdallah Hadshiti, 3 soldiers and 4 civilians were killed on
that day. Karam Karam, Samia Salameh and Christine Nasr Soleiman got
killed, the day after. Hundreds were injured.

- April 9 to 13, 1978 - The Syrian Army wrathfully shelled the region
of Ain El Remmaneh, East Beirut. The Hospitals Al Hayat and Hotel Dieu
De France in the vicinity were completely or partially destroyed. All
the patients were moved out from their rooms to the hospital's shelter.
The Syrian Army used the kind of artilleries that is forbidden at the
Geneva Convention. More than 60 civilians were killed and 300 people

The Martyrs of Ain El Remmaneh: (1976/77 incomplete - 1978 missing)

1. Therese Naoum
2. Toufic Nagib Canaan
3. Dani Kessabian
4. Tony Hatem Yazbek
5. Tony Khalil Hosh
6. Tony Yazbek
7. Tony Youssef El Mouallem
8. Tanios Rizk Harb
9. Robert Robershik
10. Chawki George Khabbaz
11. Charbel Melhem Haykal
12. Shehade Nohra Bassil
13. Charbel Selim Jaber
14. Toufic Youssef Nohra
15. Saad Mansour El Hayek
16. Semaan Assaker
17. Sami Sobhi Abdel Ahad
18. Saiid Elias El Halil
19. Samir Antoine Nassif
20. Samir Bshara Demian
21. Samir George Daaybess
22. Samir Sassine Mokbel
23. Raymond Tanios Saade
24. Joseph George Jazra
25. Joseph Haddad
26. George Tanios Hashem
27. Joseph Elias Abu Jaoude
28. Joseph Milad El Assiss
29. George Ghanem
30. Jean Anis Hashem
31. Gerges Zakhour
32. George Boulos Moa wad
33. George Pierre Minassian
34. Gerges Abdo Abu Rashed
35. Hamid Ghandour El Khoury
36. Hanna Amine Aoun
37. Hanna Samaha
38. George Dabdab
39. George Louis Makhlouf
40. George Makhlouf
41. George Nagib Mankoush
42. George Youssef Nakhleh
43. George Youssef Radwan
44. Joseph Antoine Moarkash
45. Joseph Elias El Jelekh
46. Gerges Fares Jreij
47. George Fares Jreij
48. Bassam Khoury
49. Boulos Fouad
50. Pierre Joseph Mazraani
51. Pierre Chehab Mansour
52. Pierre George Irani
53. Pierre Tanios kamilih
54. Antoine Aziz Haddad
55. Edward Melhem Touma
56. Elie AdibZakour
57. Akram Tanios Jawwad
58. Ibrahim Andre El Sabti
59. Edward Alphonse Faraj
60. Assaad Anis Nawwar
61. Elias Sabbagh
62. Emile Farid El Azzi
63. Emile Massoud Ghantous
64. Elie George El Jamil
65. Elie Salameh
66. Antoine Youssef Ghantous
67. Elie Tanios Noumour
68. Elie Abdel Waked
69. Elie Aoun
70. Elie Maroun Medawar
71. Elie Michel Farah
72. Elie Nacouzi
73. Antoine Hatem Yazbek
74. Emile Massoud Ghantous
75. Ibrahim Labib El Kallass

- June 15, 1978 - The Syrian Forces, under Rifaat el Assad's command,
attacked the village of Deir El Ahmar and executed 13 innocent
civilians and 1 officer, Sgt. Mansour Chitt. (see References)

The Victims' names: (4 of these victims were massacred in January-March
23, 1976)

1. Melhem Lahoud Moubarak (Deir El Ahmar)
2. Wahib Majid Eid (Deir El Ahmar)
3. Gerges Lahoud Habshi (Deir El Ahmar)
4. Gerges Selim El Fakhry (Deir El Ahmar)
5. Akl Wassaf Habshi (Deir El Ahmar)
6. Ibrahim Mahrouss Khashan (Deir El Ahmar)
7. Mahrouss Khashan (Deir El Ahmar)
8. Melhem Toufic El Aakoury (Deir El Ahmar)
9. Nayef Mansour Dib (Deir El Ahmar)
10. Adam Majid Habshi (Deir El Ahmar)
11. Karam Majid Habshi (Deir El Ahmar)
12. Maurice Youssef Saade (Deir El Ahmar)
13. Nabil Farid Abi Younes (Deir El Ahmar)
14. Raymond Tanios Saade (Deir El Ahmar)
15. Tony Michel Abou Raffoul (Deir El Ahmar)
16. Elias Khattar Rahme (Deir El Ahmar)
17. Rashad Hani Chit (Deir El Ahmar)

- June 28, 1978 - Syrian Special forces, under Ali Dib's command,
attacked the villages of Al-Kaa, Ras Baalbak, Jdeidet Baalbak and
Jdeidet el Feqha. At 1:30 am, the Syrians committed their Genocide in
the Valley of "Wadi Al-Reyiane", where 36 civilians were found in their
pajamas tied up, mutilated and torn into pieces.

The Victims' names: (1 name missing)

1. Akl Jamil Nasrallah
2. Milad Jamil Nasrallah
3. Youssef Jamil Nasrallah
4. Riyad Mtanios Nasrallah
5. Milad Mtanios Nasrallah
6. Gerges Mtanios Nasrallah
7. Habib Razzouk Nasrallah
8. Georges Ibrahim Nasrallah
9. Mtanios Youssef Matar
10. Hanna Gerges Matar
11. Elias Gerges Matar
12. Michel Khalil Matar
13. Michel Makhoul Matar
14. Camille Farhane Farha
15. Khalil Gerges Farha
16. Elias Mtanios Bitar
17. Mawsouf Elias Bitar
18. Youssef Habib Bitar
19. Hanni Chakour Bitar
20. Habib Bitar
21. Massoud Bitar
22. Fayad Jadat Awad
23. Soldier- Georges Fares Awad
24. Fares Boutros Awad
25. Said Awad
26. Edouard Saadallah El Arja
27. Eid Nakhle Mansour
28. Fayez Antoine Mourad
29. Raymond Akl Mourad
30. Elia Nicolas Louis
31. Hanna Labib Aoun
32. Youssef Chafic Nasr
33. Sami Youssef Haswani
34. Mohsen Georges Khoury
35. Khalil Tannous Khoury

- June 30, 1978 - The Syrian Army shelled the Christian area of Beirut
for 90 days. The shelling killed 600 civilians, injured 3000 and burnt
down 10,000 buildings, 20,000 apartments and 5000 cars. It completely
or partially destroyed Schools and Hospitals: Sacre Coeur, St. Therese,
Hotel Dieu De France, St. George and Getawi. They provoked the exodus
of 450,000 to different regions.

Beside all these atrocities, a booby-trapped car exploded in Ashrafieh,
targeting Bashir Gemayel but instead killed tens of civilians.

The Syrians shelled and targeted Shahroureh Shelter in Ashrafiyeh area,
with a 240mm long mortar, killing 30 innocent civilians.

-July 21 to 27, 1978 - The Syrian Army brutally shelled the region of
Hadath, in East Beirut. Houses, Schools, Hospitals, Asylum and churches
were partially or totally destroyed. 70 innocent were killed and 350
were injured.

Martyrs' names: (incomplete)

1. Youssef Kamil Asslan
2. Edmond Elias Aramoun
3. Alfred G. Skaff
4. Boulos Boutros Abboud
5. Sabey Elias El Aarjak
6. Emile Youssef Boutros
7. Elie Francois Sandouk
8. Jean Habib Sherfan
9. George Halim Sherfan
10. George Toufic Maalouf
11. George Tanios Dib
12. Joseph Assaad Khattar
13. Joseph Gerges Abu Aanni
14. Halim Elia Kassab
15. Selim Abbas El Asmar
16. Tony Daccache
17. Izam Metteeb El Derraawi
18. Ghassan Elias Tarraf
19. Ghattas Hanna El Barak
20. Fadi Jean Sherfan
21. Michel Sakr
22. Michel Eid Rahme
23. Nicolas Fares El Nahhass
24. Nicole Jean Saba
25. Nicolas F. El Nahhass
26. Wajdi Farid Eid
27. Wadih Youssef Abboud

- August 21, 1978 - Syrian Agents exploded a bomb in Ashrafiyeh, East
Beirut. 7 civilians were killed and 6 were injured.

- August 24 to September 30, 1978 - The Syrian Army shelled, invaded,
massacred and burnt down the 4 Caza of North Lebanon: Zghorta,
Bsharreh, Koura and Batroun. Hundreds of civilians were massacred,
mutilated, chopped with hatchets and burnt alive. In Kour (batroun)
alone, the Genocide perpetrated on the 25th of August, reached a total
number of 65 civilians, while 40 others disappeared as well. An 89 old
man was found with his throat riddled with bullets, on his wheelchair.

In the forest of the Cedars, a massacre was found: 6 civilians laid
side by side were slaughtered. Later on, 2 more civilians were found
mutilated and executed:

The First Victims' names: (incomplete)

1. Youssef Elias (Kour)
2. Youssef Morkos (Kour)
3. Moussa Nemr (Kour)
4. Mario (Kour)
5. Youssef Zakaria (Kour)
6. Abdallah Boutros (Jrane)
7. Hanni Assad Keyrouz (Cedars)
8. Anthony Assad Keyrouz (Cedars)
9. Tanios Tok (Cedars)
10. Azziz Tok (Cedars)
11. Baghos Abboud (Cedars)
12. Maria Hadshiti (Cedars)
13. Dori Nakad (Cedars)
14. Jamil Keyrouz (Cedars)

The Victims and Martyrs' names of Koura: (1976-1978)

1. Chebel Issa El Khoury
2. Azzi Tannous Tawk
3. Saba Toufic Geagea
4. Antoine Youssef Asfoura
5. Elie Faraj
6. Ghattas Khalil Soukkar
7. Hanna Abdallah Gerges
8. Therese Youssef Tawk
9. Gerges Shayben Sukkar
10. George Awdi
11. Jean Joseph El Andari
12. Saydeh Tanios Tawk
13. Shehade Wahib Sassine
14. Sabah Tanios Tawk
15. Tanios Saiid Trad
16. Tanios Michael Tawk
17. Salwa Germanos
18. Tony Fahed Geagea
19. Afif El Shammas
20. Malek Shayban Sukkar
21. Moussa Azzi Tawk
22. Edmond Gerges Eid
23. Adib Albert Obeid

- October 1 to 8, 1978 - The Syrian Army brutally bombarded all the
regions of East Beirut and the Metn, with Phosphoric bombs. They
targeted the Gas and Fuel tanks of Dora. 4 tanks exploded, burning the
civilians of the vicinity and reducing houses to ashes. 45 innocent
were killed and 74 were seriously injured. Many Lebanese Newspapers, as
"Le Reveil", had to delay their publication, until the 9th of the

- November 1, 1978 - The Syrian Army attacked the Village of Bhamdoun
and slaughtered 9 members of 2 Christian Families, in order to activate
Religious frictions in the area.

- February 1, 1979 - The Syrian Army violently shelled Ashrafiyeh area,
killing 20 civilians the first 30 minutes. Altogether, 60 civilians
were killed and over 300 injured.

- February 23, 1980 - The daughter of Bashir Gemayel, Maya, was killed
with a bomb in Ashrafiyeh, East Beirut. She died along with the driver
and bodyguard, in her car.

- February 24, 1980 - The journalist Salim Al-Lawzi was assassinated
near Beirut Airport. Salim Al-Lawzi, owner of Al-Hawadeth magazine was
tortured by the Syrians and found mutilated in Aramoun. His right hand
was first burnt with acid for writing an article criticizing Syria's
Baath regime. The building of Al-Hawadeth was completely destroyed. The
magazine is actually publishing in London.

- March 12, 1980 - Syrian Agent, Hassan Tless, placed a Bomb in the
Northern Suburb of Beirut, to assassinate President Camille Chamoun. He
was injured with 13 others. 1 civilian was killed.

- July 22, 1980 - Riyad Taha, head of the Press Syndicate, was
assassinated with his two bodyguards in Rawshe, Shurane Street, West
Beirut. The Syrians showered his car with bullets. Taha was found dead
with seven bullets in the head. The Lebanese Security Council tried to
re-investigate the crime. The case was immediately closed by Decree
from President Elias Hrawi.

- July 23, 1980 - Syrian Agents assassinated Sean Toolan, ABC
Television Correspondent.

- August 25, 1980 - Syrian Agents placed a Bomb in Ajaltoun, Kesserwan.
6 civilians were killed and 35 were injured.

- September 20, 1980 - Syrian Agents assassinated Nazem El Kadri, a
Sunnite Deputy, for inquiring the withdrawal of the Syrian Troops from
his region, in the Bekaa.

- September 27, 1980 - Syrian Agents placed a Bomb in a public bus, in
East Beirut. 2 civilians were killed and 22 were injured.

- November 10, 1980 - Syrian Agents placed two booby-trapped cars in
Ashrafiyeh, East Beirut. 10 civilians were killed and Tens were

- December 24, 1980 - On Christmas Eve, the Syrian Army shelled the
Christian town of Zahle, in the Bekaa Valley. Tens were killed and

The Martyrs' names:

1. Elie Joseph Saade
2. Hagop Hazigzian
3. Elias Nemr Abu Rjeily
4. Antoine Nagib Jabbour
5. Anis Youssef El Khoury
6. Elie Abu Rjeily
7. Pierre jean Moukarzel
8. Toufic Saliba
9. George Joseph Eid
10. George Jaalouk
11. George Dib el Khoury
12. George Chafic Hariz
13. Jean El Baalbaki
14. Gerges Jaalouk
15. Khalil Sleiman El Khoury
16. Rizkallah Youssef El Kassouf
17. Roukoz Sabbagh El Rami
18. Rita George Saade
19. Selim Farhat Assi
20. Tony Hanna Kassouf
21. Tony Zambaka
22. Farhat Issa
23. Farhat Kozhaya Shakira
24. Fassih Saiid Aylo
25. Fahima Younan
26. Louis Colanjian
27. Louis Youssef Younan
28. Marie Mershed Barakat
29. Michel Maalouf
30. Michel Elias Helou
31. Nicolas Selim Abu Dahr
32. Nicolas Mrad El Maalouf
33. Haroun Koshkarian

- December 24, 1980 - On Christmas Eve, the Syrian Army attacked Ain
Dara village, in the Shouf. They massacred 2 civilians and kidnapped
Tens others. Houses were burnt down.

- April 1 to July 1, 1981- The Syrian Army besieged and shelled the
town of Zahle. Hundreds were killed and injured. Even the Red Cross was
a target for the Syrians. On April 3rd, the Nun Marie Sophie Zoghbi was
shot down with the driver, in her Red Cross Ambulance.

- April 2, 1981- The Syrian Army shelled East Beirut, at the time where
students were leaving school. Hundreds were killed and injured, mostly
students. Ain El Remmaneh was brutally hit. A hospital in Badaro was
destroyed and one branch of the Red Cross, located in Gemayze, was hit,
injuring its volunteers.

- September 9, 1981 - The French Ambassador in Beirut, Louis Delamare,
was assassinated. His body was found riddled with bullets. 4
Palestinians under Syrian orders executed this crime.

- December 15, 1981 - A truck full of explosives destroyed the Iraqi
Embassy in Beirut. 30 people were killed and 120 injured. Iraq accused
the Syrian Secret Service.

- April 27, 1982 - Syrian Agents assassinated Sheikh Ahmad Assaf for
disapproving with their occupation. It was also meant to activate
religious frictions in the area.

- May 1, 1982 - Syrian Agents assassinated Father Philippe Abu Sleiman,
70 years old, in order to activate religious frictions in the area. He
was found shot with 3 bullets in the forehead, neck and back, in Aley.

Among the priests who were killed during the war, 7 were "Jesuits":
some were killed, some were massacred and some others were executed:

1. Father Michel Allard, (52 years old, died in his room shelled by the
Syrians, 16/1/1976).
2. Father Louis Dumas, (74 years old, was tied up to a car and dragged
until death, 25/10/1975).
3. Father De Jerphanion. (75 years old, was shelled in his car,
4. Father Meigne
5. Father Kluiters, (45 years old was found mutilated, slaughtered and
executed, 14/3/1985).
6. Father Seinnigan (72 years old was killed with a shell, Februay
7. Father Masse

- May 24, 1982 - The French Embassy in Beirut was bombarded. The car of
Anna Comidis, French secretary of the commercial service, exploded
while entering the gates of the Embassy. Her body was shredded into
pieces. 10 other people were killed and 26 were injured.

The French newspaper "Le Matin" openly accused the Syrian Secret
Service of bombarding the French Embassy and published their names.

- July 11, 1982 - The Syrian Army shelled the area of East Beirut for
no reason, killing and injuring more and more innocent citizens.

- September 14, 1982 - President Bashir Gemayel was assassinated with a
Bomb placed in his headquarters, in Ashrafiyeh, East Beirut. 24 people
were killed and 70 were seriously injured. Habib Chartouni, a Syrian
agent, who executed the operation, was arrested and jailed, in Roumieh.
On Oct. 14, 1990, when the Syrian Army invaded the last free zone, they
released Habib Chartouni. He is currently living in Syria.

The Martyrs' names:

1. Jean Nader
2. Fouad Abi Najm
3. Sassine Karam
4. Michel Talej
5. Jean Asmar
6. Pierre Fadel
7. Melhem Ibrahim Nemr
8. Marie Lahoud
9. Georges Assaad Karam
10. Michel Haddad
11. Hiyam Chukri El Hayek
12. Feriale Saloukji
13. Adiba Andraos
14. Marcelle Andraos
15. Mona Andraos Salem
16. Randa Mechantaf
17. Antoine Youssef Ayoub
18. Janette Nawwar
19. Hiyam Najjar
20. Rogers Chemali
21. Fawzat Qdadou
22. Michel Robert Chahine
23. Adele Chahine
24. Georges Elias Abou Khalil

- September 21, 1982 - A bomb exploded at the Lebanese Forces
Headquarters, in Ashrafiyeh, East Beirut. 1 civilian was killed and 17
were seriously injured.

- December 1, 1982 - Syrian Agents attempted to assassinate Walid Kamal
Jumblat, the Druze leader of the PSP, with a car bomb in Kantari, West
Beirut. The operation failed but killed his bodyguard, 2 other
civilians and injured 39 Innocent people.

- December 1982 - The Syrian Army shelled and destroyed the town of
Tripoli, in North Lebanon. Hundreds were Killed, massacred or were
deported to Syria.

- April 18, 1983 - At 13.05 am, a Syrian/Iranian agent detonated a
truck full of explosives inside the American Embassy, in West Beirut,
killing 63 and injuring 123 innocent.

The Victims' names:

1. Maxwell, Ben H. ...SSGT
2. McMaugh, Robert V. ...CPL
3. Salazar, Mark E. ...SSGT
4. Twine, Richard ...SFC
5. Maxwell, Ben H. ...SSGT

The international Media and World Press from Egypt, Jordan, United
States and Israel revealed that the Islamic Jihad group, who claimed
responsibility for the bomb attack on the US Embassy in Beirut, was
nothing but a Cover up for the Syrian Secret Services.

- September 1, 1983 - The Syrians and their collaborators attacked the
Village of Bmarryam and commit Genocide of 35 Children, women and
elderly. Among them was the Priest of the village, "Father Gerges El
Rahi", 80 years old. It was planned to activate Religion Frictions in
the Area.

- September 2, 1983 - The Palestinians, led by Special Syrian Units,
launched a massive attack over the town of Souk El-Gharb in an attempt
to take over the Presidential Palace, in Baabda district. Tens were
killed and hundreds were injured.

- September 6, 1983 - The Syrian Army invaded the village of Bhamdoun.
They destroyed it and massacred tens of civilians.

- September 7, 1983 - Syrian Agents assassinated the French Lieutenant,
Colonel "Sahler", in Beirut.

US spokesman, Mr. Allen Ronberg, declared on September 8, 1983 in a
press release, that the US was holding Syria and its troops responsible
for the deterioration in Lebanon and for supplying its allies with all
kinds of weapons.

A French official from the Quai D'Orsay revealed on September 9, 1983
that Damascus was disrupting all positive negotiations between the
Lebanese and accused Syria for bombing the French Embassy.

- September 9-10, 1983 - The Syrians and their Collaborators attacked
Maaser El Shouf and executed Genocide of 63 Children, women and
elderly. Among them was the Priest of the village, "Father Antoine
Abboud". It was meant to activate religious Frictions in the Shouf,
between the Christians and the Druzes

- September 10, 1983 - The Syrians and their Collaborators attacked the
village of Bireh and executed Genocide of 64 civilians.

- September 11, 1983 - The Syrians and their Collaborators massacred 15
civilians in Maaser Beiteddine.

- September 12, 1983 - The Syrians and their Collaborators massacred 11
civilians in Fawara.

- September 12, 1983 - The Syrians and their Collaborators massacred 12
civilians in Ain El Hor.

- September 12, 1983 - The Syrians and their Collaborators massacred 12
civilians in Bourjayn.

- September 12, 1983 - The Syrians and their Collaborators massacred 36
civilians in Chartoun and deported 41 to Syria.

- September 16, 1983 - The Syrians and their Collaborators massacred 21
civilians in Majdlaya.

- September 22- 1983, The Catholic Center of information of Beirut
officially stated that in 116 Christian villages of the Shouf, 1500
civilians have been massacred.

- September 26, 1983 - The Syrian Army shelled from Alley the French
Residence des Pins, in Beirut, for ten consecutive days. 7 civilians
were killed and 14 were injured.

- October 12, 1983 - The Syrian Army attacked the city of Tripoli, in
North Lebanon. 60 civilians were killed and hundreds were injured. Many
others were deported to Syria and remain detained until this day.

- October 23, 1983 - At 6.17 am, Syrian-Iranian Agent executed a
suicidal attack at the headquarters of the US marines, located near the
International Airport. The Blast killed 241 marines and injured 144.

The Victims' names:

1. Abbott, Terry W. ...CPL
2. Alexander, Clemon S. ...LCPL
3. Allman, John R. ...PFC
4. Arnold, Moses J. Jr. ...CPL
5. Bailey, Charles K. ...PFC
6. Baker, Nicholas ...LCPL
7. Banks, Johansen LCPL
8. Barrett, Richard E. ...LCPL
9. Bates, Ronny K. ...HM1
10. Battle, David L. ...1stSGT
11. Baynard, James R. ...LCPL
12. Beamon, Jesse W. ...HN
13. Belmer, Alvin. ...GYSGT
14. Bland, Stephen ...PFC
15. Blankenship, Richard L. ...SGT
16. Blocker, John W. ...LCPL
17. Boccia, Joseph J. Jr. ...CAPT
18. Bohannon, Leon Jr. ...CPL
19. Bohnet, John R. Jr. ...SSGT
20. Bonk, John J. Jr. ...CPL
21. Boulos, Jeffrey L. ...LCPL
22. Bousum, David R. ...CPL
23. Boyett, John N. ...1stLT
24. Brown, Anthony ...CPL
25. Brown, David W. ...LCPL
26. Buchanan, Bobby S. Jr. ...LCPL
27. Buckmaster, John B. ...CPL
28. Burley, William F. ...PFC
29. Cain, Jimmy R. ...HN
30. Callahan, Paul L. ...CPL
31. Camara, Mecot E. ...SGT
32. Campus, Bradley J. ...PFC
33. Ceasar, Johnnie D. ...LCPL
34. Cole, Marc L. ...PFC
35. Coleman, Marcus A. ...SP4
36. Comas, Juan M. ...PFC
37. Conley, Robert A ...SGT
38. Cook, Charles D. ...CPL
39. Cooper, Curtis J. ...LCPL
40. Copeland, Johnny L. ...LCPL
41. Corcoran, Bert D. ...CPL
42. Cosner, David L. ...LCPL
43. Coulman, Kevin P. ...SGT
44. Croft, Brett A. ...LCPL
45. Crudale, Rick R. ...LCPL
46. Custard, Kevin P. ...LCPL
47. Cyzick, Russell E. ...LCPL
48. Davis, Andrew L. ...MAJ
49. Decker, Sidney S. ...PFC
50. Devlin, Michael J. ...PFC
51. Dibenedetto, Thomas A. ...LCPL
52. Dorsey, Nathaniel G. ...PVT
53. Douglass, Frederick B. ...SGTMAJ
54. Dunnigan, Timothy J. ...CPL
55. Earle, Bryan L. ...HN
56. Edwards, Roy L. ...MSGT
57. Elliot, William D. Jr. ...HM3
58. Ellison, Jesse ...LCPL
59. Estes, Danny R. ...PFC
60. Estler, Sean F. ...PFC
61. Faulk, James E. ...HM3
62. Fluegel, Richard A. ...PFC
63. Forrester, Steven M. ...CPL
64. Foster, William B. Jr. ...HM3
65. Fulcher, Michael D ...CPL
66. Fuller, Benjamin E ...LCPL
67. Fulton, Michael S. ...LCPL
68. Gaines, William Jr. ...CPL
69. Gallagher, Sean R. ...LCPL
70. Gander, David B. ...LCPL
71. Gangur, George M. ...LCPL
72. Gann, Leland E. ...SSGT
73. Garcia, Randall J. ...LCPL
74. Garcia, Ronald J. ...SSGT
75. Gay, David D. ...LCPL
76. Ghumm, Harold D. ...SSGT
77. Gibbs, Warner Jr. ...LCPL
78. Giblin, Timothy R. ...CPL
79. Gorchinski, Michael W. ...ETC
80. Gordon, Richard J. ...LCPL
81. Gratton, Harold F. ...LCPL
82. Greaser, Robert B. ...SGT
83. Green, Davin M. ...LCPL
84. Hairston, Thomas A. ...LCPL
85. Haltiwanger, Freddie Jr. ...SGT
86. Hamilton, Virgil D. ...LCPL
87. Hanton, Gilbert ...SGT
88. Hart, William ...LCPL
89. Haskell, Michael S. ...CAPT
90. Hastings, Michael A. ...PFC
91. Hein, Paul A. ...CAPT
92. Held, Douglas E. ...LCPL
93. Helms, Mark A. ...PFC
94. Henderson, Ferrandy D. ...LCPL
95. Hernandez, Matilde Jr. ...MSGT
96. Hester, Stanley G. ...CPL
97. Hildreth, Donald W. ...GYSGT
98. Holberton, Richard H. ...SSGT
99. Holland, Robert S. ...HM3
100. Hollingshead, Bruce A. ...LCPL
101. Holmes, Melvin D. ...PFC
102. Howard, Bruce L. ...CPL
103. Hudson, John R. ...LT
104. Hudson, Terry L. ...CPL
105. Hue, Lyndon J. ...LCPL
106. Hukill, Maurice E. ...2ndLT
107. Iacovino, Edward F. Jr. ...LCPL
108. Ingalls, John J. ...PFC
109. Innocenzi, Paul G. III ...WO1
110. Jackowski, James J. ...LCPL
111. James, Jeffrey W. ...LCPL
112. Jenkins, Nathaniel W. ...LCPL
113. Johnson, Michael H. ...HM2
114. Johnston, Edward A. ...CPL
115. Jones, Steven ...LCPL
116. Julian, Thomas A. ...PFC
117. Kees, Marion E. ...HM2
118. Keown, Thomas C. ...SGT
119. Kimm, Edward E. ...GYSGT
120. Kingsley, Walter V. ...LCPL
121. Kluck, Daniel S. ...SGT
122. Knipple, James C. ...LCPL
123. Kreischer, Freas H. III ...LCPL
124. Laise, Keith J. ...LCPL
125. Lamb, Thomas G. ...LCPL
126. Langon, James J. IV ...LCPL
127. Lariviere, Michael S. ...SGT
128. Lariviere, Steven B. ...CPL
129. Lemnah, Richard L. ...MSGT
130. Lewis, David A. ...CPL
131. Lewis, Val S. ...SGT
132. Livingston, Joseph R. ...CPL
133. Lyon, Paul D. Jr. ...LCPL
134. Macroglou, John W. ...MAJ
135. Maitland, Samuel ...CPL
136. Martin, Charlie R. ...SSGT
137. Martin, Jack L. ...PFC
138. Massa, David S. ...CPL
139. Massman, Michael R. ...SGT
140. Mattacchione, Joseph J. ...PVT
141. McCall, John ...LCPL
142. McDonough, James E. ...SGT
143. McMahon, Timothy R. ...LCPL
144. McNeely, Timothy D. ...LCPL
145. McVicker, George N. II ...HM2
146. Melendez, Louis ...PFC
147. Menkins, Richard H. II ...SGT
148. Mercer, Michael D. ...CPL
149. Meurer, Ronald W. ...LCPL
150. Milano, Joseph P. ...HM3
151. Moore, Joseph P. ...CPL
152. Morrow, Richard A. ...LCPL
153. Muffler, John F. ...LCPL
154. Munoz, Alex ...CPL
155. Myers, Harry D. ...CPL
156. Nairn, David J. ...1stLT
157. Nava, Luis A. ...LCPL
158. Olson, John A. ...CPL
159. Olson, Robert P. ...PFC
160. Ortiz, Richard C. ...CWO3
161. Owen, Jeffrey B. ...PFC
162. Owens, Joseph A. ...CPL
163. Page, Connie Ray ...CPL
164. Parker, Ulysses ...LCPL
165. Payne, Mark W. ...LCPL
166. Pearson, John L. ...GYSGT
167. Perron, Thomas S. ...PFC
168. Phillips, John A. Jr. ...SGT
169. Piercy, George W. ...HMC
170. Plymel, Clyde W. ...1stLT
171. Pollard, William H. ...SGT
172. Pomalestorres, Rafael I. ...SGT
173. Prevatt, Victor M. ...CPL
174. Price, James C. ...PFC
175. Prindeville, Patrick K. ...SSGT
176. Pulliam, Eric A. ...PFC
177. Quirante, Diomedes J. ...HM3
178. Randolph, David M. ...LCPL
179. Ray, Charles R. ...GYSGT
180. Relvas, Rui A. ...PFC
181. Rich, Terrence L. ...PFC
182. Richardson, Warren ...LCPL
183. Rodriguez, Juan C. ...SGT
184. Rotondo, Louis J. ...LCPL
185. Sanpedro, Guillermo Jr. ...LCPL
186. Sauls, Michael C. ...LCPL
187. Schnorf, Charles J. ...1stLT
188. Schultz, Scott L. ...PFC
189. Scialabba, Peter J. ...CAPT
190. Scott, Gary R. ...CPL
191. Shallo, Ronald L. ...CPL
192. Shipp, Thomas A. ...CPL
193. Shropshire, Jerryl D. ...LCPL
194. Silvia, James F. ...CPL
195. Sliwinski, Stanley J. ...LCPL
196. Smith, Kirk H. ...LCPL
197. Smith, Thomas G. ...SSGT
198. Smith, Vincent L. ...CAPT
199. Soares, Edward ...LCPL
200. Sommerhof, William S. ...1stLT
201. Spaulding, Michael C. ...LCPL
202. Spearing, John W. ...LCPL
203. Spencer, Stephen E. ...LCPL
204. Stelpflug, Bill J. ...LCPL
205. Stephens, Horace R. ...LCPL
206. Stockton, Craig S. ...PFC
207. Stokes, Jeffrey G. ...LCPL
208. Stowe, Thomas D. ...LCPL
209. Sturghill, Eric D. ...LCPL
210. Sundar, Devon L. ...LCPL
211. Surch, James F. Jr. ...LT
212. Thompson, Dennis A. ...CPL
213. Thorstad, Thomas P. ...SSGT
214. Tingley, Stephen D. ...PFC
215. Tishmack, John J. ...LCPL
216. Trahan, Lex D. ...PVT
217. Vallone, Donald H. Jr. ...PFC
218. Walker, Eric R. ...CPL
219. Walker, Leonard W. ...CPL
220. Washington, Eric G. ...CPL
221. Weekes, Obrian ...CPL
222. Wells, Tandy W. ...1stSGT
223. Wentworth, Steven B. ...LCPL
224. Wesley, Allen D. ...SGT
225. West, Lloyd D. ...GYSGT
226. Weyl, John R. ...SSGT
227. Wherland, Burton D. Jr. ...CPL
228. Wigglesworth, Dwayne W. ...LCPL
229. Williams, Rodney J. ...LCPL
230. Williams, Scipio Jr. ...GYSGT
231. Williamson, Johnny A. ...LCPL
232. Wint, Walter E. Jr. ...CAPT
233. Winter, William E. ...CAPT
234. Wolfe, John E. ...CPL
235. Woollett, Donald E. ...1stLT
236. Worley, David E. ...HM3
237. Wyche, Craig L. ...PFC
238. Yarber, James G. ...SFC
239. Young, Jeffrey D. ...SGT
240. Zimmerman, William A...1stLT
241. Rivers, Paul...CPL (might have survived the blast)

- October 23, 1983 - On the same day, 3 minutes later, at 6.20 am,
Syrian-Iranian agent executed a second suicidal attack. The Drakkar
quarters of the French paratroopers blew up. 56 paratroopers were
killed and 32 were seriously injured.

According to the French newspaper "Le Quotidien de Paris", issued on
the 12/11/1983, Adnan Assad, President Hafez Assad's cousin, was the
master mind of the Marines and the Paratroopers attacks.

- November 4, 1983 - The Israeli headquarters was attacked. 61 were
killed (32 Lebanese and 29 Israelis).

- November 16, 1983 - The Syrian Army brutally shelled East Beirut: Sin
El fil, Ashrafiyeh, Kahaleh, Fiyadieh, Hazmieh, Mkalles, Jisr El Basha,
Ain El Remmaneh, Dekkwaneh and Furn El Shebbak. Hundreds of civilians
were reported dead and hundreds injured.

Caritas-Lebanon diffused on November 22, 1983 in Paris that the
Christians evacuated from the regions of Aley and the Shouf. 100.000
people fled, 85 churches, schools and 17.200 houses were hit and
destroyed; 56 villages of the Shouf and 32 of Aley were razed to the

- November 30, 1983 - The Syrian Army shelled the East area of Beirut:
Ashrafiyeh, Dora, Jamhour, Hazmiyeh, and Baabda. 6 civilians were
killed and 30 injured.

- December 1, 1983 - Sheikh Halim Taqieddine, head of the Spiritual
Druze Court, was assassinated.

- December 4, 1983 - The Syrian Army shot down 2 US Air Force. The one
who survived was detained then deported to Syria.

- December 5, 1983 - A Booby-trapped car exploded in West Beirut. 20
civilians were killed and 84 were injured.

- December 21, 1983 - Syrian Agents exploded a truck bomb at the French
Fregate Post , in West Beirut. A French officer and 14 Lebanese
civilians were killed. 90 other civilians were injured.

- January 16, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled the Christian areas. 5000
shells were launched in one single day. 26 civilians were killed and 75
were severely injured.

- January 18, 1984 - The President of the American University of
Beirut, Malcom Kerr, was assassinated. It was a Syrian Warning to every
American resident.

- January 20-21 to 30, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled East Beirut. More
than 2 Lebanese and 1 US Marine were killed. 50 Lebanese and 3 US
Marines were injured.

- February 1, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled East Beirut. 6 civilians
were killed and tens were injured.

- February 2 to 11, 1984 - The Syrian Army brutally shelled Metn,
Kesserwan and the Mountains. 48 were killed and 153 were injured on the
first two days. 12 were killed and 116 were injured on the third.
Houses, Schools and Hospitals were hit and partially or completely
destroyed. In Yarze, tens were killed and injured.

The Newspapers reported the month of February, as the most barbarian
month that has ever struck Lebanon. The Syrians were shelling with
heavy artilleries, on daily basis, all the regions of Lebanon. Schools,
Hospitals Asylums, Churches and Shelters were their main target. They
killed 500 civilians and seriously injured 2300 innocent people.

- March 13, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled East Beirut. 27 were killed
and 125 were injured.

- March 26, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled East Beirut. 5 were killed
and 20 injured. A French Diplomat was shot in West Beirut.

UNIFIL withdrew its Troops from Lebanon, after a period of 18 months,
on April 1, 1984. 308 injured and 353 dead, 264 Americans, 112 French,
and 62 Italians, were reported.

- April 3 to 29, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled East Beirut. 10 were
killed and 79 were injured.

- April 8, 1984 - Syrian Agents murdered the entire "Al Haddad' family,
in their home, in Cola area, West Beirut, in order to activate
religious frictions in the area.

- April 1984- Syrian Agents assassinated Dr. Salah Yassine, Professor
at the Lebanese University.

- May 3- 4, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled East Beirut. 29 were killed
and 18 children were injured.

The Newspapers published on May 3rd 1984, that 150 were reported dead,
in the month of April.

- May 12, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled East Beirut. 19 civilians were
killed and 72 were injured.

- May 14, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled "Notre Dame de l'Annonciation"
school in Ashrafieh, East Beirut. 1 Student was killed and 21 were
seriously injured. (see References)

- June 11, 1984 - The Syrian Army shelled East and West Beirut to
provoke an internal confrontation. 105 civilians were killed and 250
were injured in the West Side. 19 were killed and 107 were injured in
the East Side.

- June 23, 1984 - Syrian Agents kidnapped then executed Gerhard
Loitzenbaur, the Consul of Austria, in West Beirut.

- July 6, 1984 - A booby-trapped car exploded in a Supermarket in
Jbeil-Byblos, North Lebanon. 2 civilians were killed and 3 were
seriously injured.

- July 16, 1984 - The Syrian Army controlled the villages of North
Lebanon. Tens were killed and hundreds were injured.

- August 9, 1984 - A Booby trapped car exploded in West Beirut, killing
and injuring tens of civilians.

- August 17, 1984 - The Syrians assassinated Dr. Andre Nasri Nahhass,
Professor at the Lebanese University and Director of a Public School,
in Tripoli. As usual, it was a Syrian Warning to the educational corps.

- August 21, 1984 - The Syrian Army attacked the city of Tripoli, North
Lebanon. 30 Sunnite resistant were killed and 150 were injured. Others
were deported to Syria where they remain until this day. Tripoli had
been the target of the Syrian Army for a whole month, killing 90 dead
and injuring 300 civilians.

- September 20, 1984 - A truck bomb exploded near the American Embassy
in Awkar, East Beirut. 12 civilians were killed and 96 were injured.

- September 27, 1984 - 3 Lebanese Soldiers were found massacred in
Zghorta, North of Lebanon; zone controlled by the Syrians.

- March 6, 1985 - Syrian-Iranian groups attacked Rashaya, in South
Lebanon. Tony Kfoury was killed and Tens were injured.

- May 22, 1985 - A booby-trapped car exploded in a Supermarket in Sin
El Fil, East Beirut. 42 civilians were killed and 177 seriously

- June 4, 1985 - Denis Hill, a British Professor at the American
University of Beirut, was found assassinated. It was a Syrian Warning
to all the Britsh and American Residents.

- June 30, 1985 - Syrian-Iranian groups attacked Zaghraya-Sidon, in
South Lebanon. Mustafa Khalil, Abdel Raouf El Hajj and Mahmoud
Haffouda, were killed.

- August 12, 1985 - The Syrians shelled East and West Beirut. 17
innocent were killed and 140 were injured.

- August 14, 1985 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Sid El Baouchriyeh,
East Beirut. 21 civilians were killed and 120 seriously injured.

- August 17, 1985 - A booby-trapped car exploded in a Supermarket in
Jal El Dib, East Beirut. 31 civilians were killed and 85 seriously

- August 19-20, 1985 - The Syrian Army brutally shelled the regions of
Beirut, Kesserwan, Metns and Jbeil-Byblos. 22 civilians were killed and
86 were injured.

- September 4, 1985 - A booby-trapped car exploded in the town of
Zahleh, in the Bekaa. 15 civilians were killed and 47 were seriously

- October 1, 1985 - On the same day, Syrian Agents kidnapped and
executed Arkadi Katakov, first Secretary at the Soviet Union Consulate,
in West Beirut.

- October 4, 1985 - Syrian Agents executed William Buckley, third
secretary at the American Embassy of Beirut. He was kidnapped 19 days

- November 13, 1985 - A booby-trapped car exploded in the court of the
St. George Convent, in Awkar, East Beirut. 38 were seriously injured
and 4 civilians were killed, including 2 Lebanese Lieutenants.

- December 31, 1985 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Jal El Dib, East
Beirut. 3 civilians were killed and 23 were seriously injured.

According to official Statistics, Reuters Agency reported 3693 killed
in 1985 and 2200 in 1984.

- January 21, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Furn El Chebback,
East Beirut. 22 civilians were killed and 110 were seriously injured.

- January 31, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Sin El Fil, East
Beirut. 5 civilians were burnt and seriously injured.

- February 1, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Sin El Fil, East
Beirut. 1 civilian was seriously injured.

- February 2, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Dekkwaneh, East
Beirut. 2 civilians were seriously injured.

- February 3, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in New Jdeideh, East
Beirut. 4 civilians were killed and 20 were seriously injured.

- February 12, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Ain El Remmaneh,
East Beirut. 2 civilians were killed and 17 seriously injured.

- February 24, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Sin El Fil
-Dekkwaneh highway, East Beirut. 5 civilians were killed in their car
(Lieutenant Elias Abou Zeid and his whole family), 16 were seriously

- March 8, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Rmeil-Ashrafiyeh,
East Beirut. 6 were killed and 53 were seriously injured.

- March 26, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Tahwita - Furn El
Chebback. 6 were seriously injured.

- March 5, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Saida. 2 civilians
were killed and 2 were injured.

- March 5, 1986 - Syrian-Iranian Agents executed the French researcher,
Michel Seurat.

- March 21, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Furn El Chebbak,
East Beirut. 30 civilians were killed and shredded into pieces. More
than 132 civilians were seriously injured.

- April 8, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in the market of
Jounieh. 11 civilians were killed and 89 were seriously burnt and

- April 17, 1986 - Peter Kilburn (US), Phillip Patfield (UK) and John
Leigh Douglas (UK), Members of the American University of Beirut were
found mutilated and executed in Sofar. It was the usual Syrian Warning
to all American and British Residents.

- April 23, 1986 - Alec Colett (UK), staff at the UNRWA, in West
Beirut, was assassinated. (see References)

- May 12, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Saida-Sidon. 2
civilians were killed and 2 were injured.

- May 21, 1986 - On the same day, 2 booby-trapped cars exploded in East
Beirut. 7 Civilians were killed and shredded into pieces. More than 100
civilians were seriously injured.

- May 23, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Sin El Fil, East
Beirut. 7 civilians were killed and shredded into pieces. 4 were
missing and 94 were seriously injured.

- May 24, 1986 - Father Boutros Abi Akl, 62 years old, was shot. Syrian
Agents riddled him with bullets on his way to Cadmus School, in Tyr.

- May 25, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Sid El Baouchriyeh,
East Beirut. 4 civilians were seriously injured.

- May 27, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Dora, East Beirut. A
mother and her son were killed and 7 others were seriously injured.

- July 28, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Ain El Remmaneh, East
Beirut. 32 Civilians were killed and shredded into pieces. More than
140 were seriously injured.

- July 30, 1986 - A booby-trapped Mercedes car exploded in Barbir, West
Beirut. 22 civilians were killed and shredded into pieces. More than
163 civilians were seriously injured.

At the same time as The French Secret Services accused Colonel Ghazi
Kanaan of all terrorist activities taking place in Lebanon and in
France, Damascus was promoting him as Commander-in Chief.

- August 1, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in a parking lot at
Dora, East Beirut. 2 innocent people were killed and 29 were burnt and
seriously injured.

- August 2, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded at the entrance of a
bakery, in Jal El Dib, East Beirut. 6 innocent people were burnt and
seriously injured.

- August 4, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded at the entrance of a
Café in Bourj Hammoud, East Beirut. 2 innocent people were killed and
31 were burnt and seriously injured.

The Catholic Center of information of Beirut officially stated that
since 1975 until August 4, 1986, 74 Explosions were reported, causing
638 dead and 2752 injured.

- August 15, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Dora, East Beirut.
21 Civilians were killed and shredded into pieces. More than 84 were
seriously injured.

- September 18, 1986 - The Military Attaché of the French Embassy in
Beirut, Colonel Christian Gouttière, was assassinated near the
Embassy, in Mar Takla. Richard Gimpel, a French employee in an Arak
factory, was assassinated. Lieutenant Jacques Meurand, who was sent
from France to investigate on that case, was killed too.

- October 7, 1986 - Syrian agents assassinated Sheikh Subhi El Saleh,
Vice President of the Islamic Center, in Broad daylight.

- October 14, 1986 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Tariq El Jdide,
West Beirut. 3 Civilians were killed and 42 were seriously injured.

- November 22, 1986 - The Syrian Army arrested and tortured hundreds of
Lebanese from the city of Tripoli. Tens of Civilians were found dead in
the streets of Tripoli and the rest were deported to Syria, where they
remain until this day

- November 30, 1986 - The Syrian Army accused civilians of
collaborating against them. They executed 34 civilians.

- June 1, 1987- Prime Minister Rashid Karami was assassinated with a
bomb planted under his helicopter seat, on his way from Tripoli to
Beirut. [ Samir Geagea got a life sentence for this crime ]

- July 15, 1987 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Tripoli, North of
Lebanon. 5 Civilians were killed and 90 were seriously injured.

- August 2, 1987 - Syrian Agents assassinated Doctor Muhammad Shoukeir,
President Amine Gemayel's special advisor, in his home in West Beirut.

- November 14, 1987 - Syrian Agents placed a booby-trapped chocolate
box at the American University Hospital of Beirut. 7 innocent civilians
were killed and shredded into pieces. 37 others were seriously injured.

- October 14, 1988 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Tariq El Jdide,
West Beirut. 4 Civilians were killed and 33 were seriously injured.

- February 8, 1989 - Syrian agents, assassinated Anwar Al Fatayri, a
prominent Druze figure of the PSP, with his bodyguard. The 2 other
political members, Joseph El Azzi and Georges Dib Nehmeh, were
seriously injured. The latter, suffers and limps until this day.

- March 7, 1989 - A booby-trapped car exploded in Hamra Street, West
Beirut. 2 Civilians were killed and shredded into pieces, 21 were
seriously injured.

- March 13, 1989 - A booby-trapped car exploded at the entrance of a
bakery, in Jal El Dib, East Beirut. 15 Civilians were killed and
shredded into pieces, 140 were seriously injured.

- March 14, 1989 - At 7:30 am, school time, the Syrian Army committed
from the hills of Aramoun a children Genocide with a 240mm mortar,
launched at the UNESCO, in West Beirut. 13 innocent children were
killed and Tens were injured. 4 civilians were burnt in their car.

- March 14, 1989 - The Spanish Ambassador, Pedro Manuel de Aristigui,
was killed with his father, his sister in-law and the Lebanese Writer,
Toufic Youssef Awwad. The Syrians shelled his quarters at the Spanish
Embassy in Baabda, East Beirut, with a 240 mm mortar. De Aristigui
survived the first time, from a kidnapping, on 10/10/1984.

- March 14, 1989 - The Syrian Army kept shelling all the regions of
East, West Beirut, Metn, Byblos and the Shouf. They used all kind of
heavy artilleries. They killed 40 innocent and injured 132 Civilians.
St-Charles, Sacre-Coeur, St.Therese and few other hospitals were
partially or completely destroyed. Schools and churches were as well
targeted with 240mm mortars.

- March 17, 1989 - A booby-trapped car exploded for the second time
that week, at the entrance of a bakery, in Jal El Dib, East Beirut. 13
innocent people were killed and 119 were burnt and seriously injured.

- May 9, 1989 - The Mufti of the Republic, Sheikh Hassan Khaled, was
assassinated along with his bodyguards, for opposing and denouncing the
Syrian occupation. He informed Kuwait's Ambassador that the Syrians
committed the UNESCO children Genocide to implicate the Legal Lebanese
Army of General Michel Aoun. [ More details on this in due course ]

- August 5, 1989 - In the middle of the night, at 12:30 am, the Syrian
Army executed Genocide in Fayadiyeh. The Syrians shelled 6 bombs of
240mm mortars from 6 different launchers, targeting the only Shelter of
the region and killing 150 Civilians; no injured, no survivors.

- November 22, 1989 - President Rene Moawad was assassinated along with
22 others by a roadside bomb, in West Beirut. While his motorcade was
passing through for the Independence Day, two bombs exploded, one in
the trunk of his car and the other one on the sideways of the street.
Nominated by Hafez Assad, Rene Moawad refused to overthrow the legal
Government of General Michel Aoun by force and preferred, as a first
alternative, to negotiate and convince him to resign. { Much more on this in due
course }

- In 1990 - Al-Ma Ayta, the First Secretary of the Jordanian Embassy
was assassinated in broad daylight.

- July 6, 1990 - Syrian/Iranian groups murdered U.S. Officer William
Higgins, commander of the UNIFIL forces, in South Lebanon.

- October 12, 1990- Francois Halell, a Syrian Agent, attempted to
assassinate General Michel Aoun. The bullet missed its target but
killed General Aoun's soldier. Later on, the Syrians considered him as
a national hero.

- October 13, 1990 - The Syrian Army invaded The Christian area of
Beirut, called the last free Zone. At 7:00 am, the Syrian Air force
bombarded the Presidential Palace while the Syrian Army shelled with
heavy artilleries and attacked the rest of the regions. Soldiers of the
Lebanese Army were executed naked with a bullet in their foreheads.
Thousands of civilians were massacred; women and girls were raped and
ripped open; children were slaughtered and cut into pieces. Hospitals,
Schools, Monasteries, houses and churches were shelled, destroyed and
burnt down. Shelters were attacked and people were massacred; Priests
were strangled or butchered. Hundreds were deported to Syrian prisons
where they are detained until this present day.

- In Dawar, houses and churches were burnt down. 5 civilians were
killed and 32 were injured.

- The village of Dahr Al-Sawan was completely sacked. Tens were killed
and injured; among them, a French priest from the Lazarus College was

- In the region of Beit-Mery, Tens of civilians and soldiers were
massacred. The Monastery of Deir El Qalaa in Beit-Mery, was attacked.
Soldiers and Priests were first tortured. And around noon, 30 Lebanese
soldiers were placed in a pit and executed in cold blood with machine
guns and hand grenades. The Priests, like Father Sleiman Abu Khalil,
head of the Monastery and Father Albert Sherfan, were deported to Anjar
at the Lebanese-Syrian borders, then to Palestine Branch, in Syria.
Their fates remain unknown until this day. The corpses of those who
were buried alive in the pit are still present, but no one is allowed
to approach the site because of the Syrian forces that are positioned

The Al-Qalaa Monastery Incident was one of the most awful incidents of
human rights abuses in which the Syrian army bears direct
responsibility"...according to SOLIDE Org. in their report addressed to
the United Nations. (SOLIDE Org., "UNReport1).

- In the region of Hadath, the 19 young volunteers who tried to defend
their homes were executed in cold blood. They were placed against the
wall of "Al Sayydeh" church and gun fired:

The Victims'names:

Rock Jabbour
Elie Barrack
Elie Hawlo Barrack
Claude Jetty
George Zayrob
Andre Chebbly
Saad Al Barrack
Philippe Wanniss and 11 others.

- In the region of Dahr El Wahesh, The Syrian Army attacked and
massacred civilians. 76 Lebanese soldiers who even though surrendered,
were shot down. The Red Cross found them naked, tied up and shot in the
head. One of them survived. A nurse at the Public Hospital of Baabda,
who saw the arrival of the corpses in the Red Cross ambulances,
declared to a journalist, "I counted between 75 and 80 soldiers. Most
of them had a bullet in the nape of the neck or in their mouth. They
carried marks of cords around their wrists. They were naked, wearing
only underwear. Some of them had their eyes extracted; some others had
an arm or a leg torn apart. They all have been shot in their heads.
There can be no doubt about their execution".

- On the night of the 13th-14th, the Syrian Army attacked the village
of Bsouss, expelled its inhabitants and executed 15 people in cold
blood. They were shot in the heart and the head. Their relatives were
not allowed to burry them, until the day after. The rest of its
inhabitants got expelled from their homes and were only allowed to
regain them after 6 years, in 1996, where they found the whole village
razed to the ground. (see references)

The Victims'names:

1. Dr. Nazih Naoum, 25 years old, medical student.
2. Officer Boutros Wehbe, 40 years old.
3. Melhem Lias Sader, 42 years old.
4. Abdo Lias Sader, 50 years old.
5. Rafic Lias Sader, 40 years old.
6. Imad Abdo Sader, 25 years old.
7. Lias Sader, 78 years old.
8. Elie Joseph Feghali, 30 years old.
9. Zeydan Said Feghali, 30 years old.
10. Assaad Sayyah, 50 years old.
11. Elie Assaad Sayyah, 19 years old.
12. Edward Assaad Sayyah, 16 years old.
13. Emile Sayyah, 40 years old.
14. Joseph Sayyah, 42 years old.
15. Robert Joseph Sayyah, 13 years old.
16. Zeydan Zeydan, 40 years old. (was lately reported).

- In the vicinity of the Presidential Palace in Baabda, the Syrians
executed 51 Lebanese soldiers who even though surrendered:

The Martyrs' names:

- Nabil Farès: Sergeant, 102nd battalion.
- Amer Bayeh: Soldier, 102nd battalion.
- Ali Labib: Officer cadet.
- Albert Tannous: Captain, 102nd battalion.
- Haidar Abdo: Corporal, 102nd battalion.
- Hanna Abou Malhab: Sergeant, 101st battalion.
- Ibrahim Eid : Staff Sergeant, 101st battalion.
- Imad Salamé : Soldier, 54th battalion.
- Kamil Makhlouf : Warrant officer, 102nd battalion.
- Georges Ishac : Chief Warrant officer.
- Maurice Salamé : Sergeant, 102nd battalion.
- Simaane Adam : Soldier, 102nd battalion.
- Boutros Yamine : Sergeant, 102nd battalion.
- Gaby Makhlouf : Soldier, Presidential guard.
- Kassem Saleh : Soldier, Presidential guard.
- Simon Makhoul: Sergeant, Presidential guard.
- Chahine Chahine: Sergeant, Presidential guard.
- Souheil Rizk: Staff Sergeant.
- Walid Abou Saad: Soldier, Commandos.
- Fady Abdel Karim: Staff Sergeant, 102nd battalion.
- Johnny Maroun: Staff Sergeant, Presidential guard.
- Ahmed Almoujeh: Soldier, Presidential guard
- Naïm Metri: Warrant officer. Presidential guard.
- Ohannès Badresslian: Soldier, 101st battalion.
- Georges Soualhom: Lieutenant, 102nd battalion.
- Rony Abou Nicolas: Corporal
- Mahmoud Al Hadchini: Staff Sergeant. Presidential guard.
- Ronald Salamé: Corporal, 102nd battalion.
- Charbel Honeini: Staff Sergeant, Presidential guard.
- Bassam Chahine: Staff Sergeant, 81st battalion
- Georges Lattouf: Staff Sergeant, Presidential guard.
- Rabih abou Zeidan: Officer cadet.
- Majed Attallah. Staff Sergeant, 95th battalion.
- Pierre Abou Youssef: Officer cadet.
- Elias Al Kadi: Soldier, Logistic.
- Hossein Merhe. Soldier, 81st battalion.
- Cheilane El Bitar: Staff sergeant, 101st battalion.
- Maroun Al Zouhbi: Warrant officer, 85th battalion
- Claude Matta: Soldier
- Ghassan Abou Abbas: Staff Sergeant, Presidential guard.
- Ralph Sarkis: Soldier.
- Maroun Hnoud: 102nd battalion.
- Georges Chamoun: staff Sergeant, 102nd battalion.
- Raymond hatchiti: Staff Sergeant, 102nd battalion.
- Farid Freiha: Sergeant. 102nd battalion.
- Farès Youakim: Corporal. 104th battalion.
- Maroun Younès: Chief warrant officer.
- Joseph Rached: Chief warrant officer.
- Samir Estéphane : Corporal, Presidential guard.
- Ghassan Ali : Soldier, 102nd battalion - Akram Hanna : Sergeant,
102nd battalion.

For the first time, the Private hospitals Association refused to
publish and reveal the number of victims, as well as the number of
corpses in the morgues.

- October 14, 1990 - The Syrian soldiers were holding with an iron grip
all the regions and as barbarians, were torturing, raping, deporting
and killing civilians for no reason. Gaby Hariqa was shot at a Syrian
checkpoint, in Hazmieh and one other civilian in Beit-Mery. A couple of
students were found shot in their car, in Ain Saade. 3 Syrian soldiers
rapped C.M., 16 years old, near her house, in Baabda. These daily
atrocities remained unbearable for more than 3 consecutive years.

- October 20, 1990 - Dany Chamoun, a great national figure,
Leader of the PNL, with his wife and 2 children in his apartment, in
Baabda, under orders from Samir Geagea. Dany Chamoun was
a close ally to the Prime Minister General Aoun and the Leader of the
Guardians of the Cedars, Etienne Sakr, all opposing the Syrian
occupation and its barbarism against the Lebanese. [ Samir Geagea got a life
sentence for this Horrendous crime ]

- May 22, 1991 - After midnight, Dr. Michel Salhab, the General
Secretary of the National Bloc party, was assassinated, in his home in
Baabdat. Syrian Agents, under Ali Eid's Command executed this crime.

- January 15, 1992 - Syrian Agents assassinated Mustafa Geha, a
Lebanese Poet and writer for his Anti-Syrian's writings. His books were
later on, removed from the market.

- November 9, 1998 - Syrian-Iranian groups planted an explosive charge,
in Ain Majdalain-Niha Road, in Jezzine, South Lebanon. 4 Southern
Lebanese soldiers were killed and 1 other was seriously injured.

- June 8, 1999 - 2 Syrian Agents assassinated 3 Judges and 1
Prosecutor, in Saida 's Supreme Court. Hassan Osman, Walid Harmoush,
Imad Chehab and Assem Abu Daher, were murdered in broad daylight, in
front of dozens of witnesses. The 2 gunmen fled to Ain el Helweh
Palestinian refugee Camp. It was as usual, a Syrian warning to subdue
the Judiciary Corps.

- September 22, 1999 - Syrian-Iranian groups planted an explosive
charge, in Kfar Houneh, South Lebanon. 2 Southern Lebanese soldiers
were killed.

- September 28, 1999 - Syrian-Iranian groups detonated a roadside bomb,
in South Lebanon. 1 Southern Lebanese Officer with his driver was
killed and Tens were seriously injured.

- March 2, 2000 - Syrian-Iranian groups planted an explosive charge, in
South Lebanon. 1 Southern Lebanese soldier was killed and Tens were
seriously injured.

- March 3, 2000 - Syrian-Iranian groups detonated a roadside bomb, in
South Lebanon. 6 Southern Lebanese soldiers were killed in their
military car and 4 civilians were seriously injured.

A Southern Lebanese Officer reported to the Media, that from 1978 until
2000, 621 Southerners of the Lebanese Army and 200 civilians were
killed and assassinated, while 230 Soldiers and 80 civilians became

From 1969 till 2000 - The Palestinians, the Syrians and later the
Syrian/Iranian agents, kidnapped, tortured, massacred, and assassinated
hundreds of civilians, in South Lebanon. They attacked the villages of
Jezzine Kfarfalous, Naqoura Bent Jbeil, Marjaayoun, Qlayaa, Hasbaya,
Debil, Deir Mimass, Ain El Mir, Roum, Anan, Shuwaya, Labaa, Rmeish,
Kfarhouna, Aramta, Rihane, Ain Ebel, Beit Lif, Tebnine, Bkassine,
Aytoula, Sabbah and many others in south Lebanon. They burnt down
houses, churches, schools and 2 Hospitals in order to occupy the rest
(8%) of the Lebanese territory and to undermine the state of lull
between Lebanon and Israel.

The Victims and Martyrs' names: (incomplete)

1. Officer Akl Hashem - (SLA - Debil, 31/1/2000)
2. Akiki - (SLA - Debil, 31/1/2000)
3. Fawzi El Saghir - (SLA - 28/9/1999)
4. Milia Naaman Rashed - (72 years old - Jezzine)
5. Maroun Neemeh Neemeh - (67 years old Qlayaa)
6. Salima Neemeh (60 years old - Qlayaa)
7. Youssef Massoud Rizk - (Jezzine - August 20, 1976)
8. Tanios El Tenn - (Rmeish - September 1976)
9. Hanne Michael El Haddad - (Ain Ebel - July 1976)
10. Michael El Haddad - (Ain Ebel - July 1976)
11. Joseph El Haddad - (Ain Ebel - July 1976)
12. Mona Youssef Chbat - (Ain Ebel - September 75)
13. Youssef Tanios Salloum - (Ain Ebel - June 1977)
14. Youssef Gerges Nassif - (Debil - February 1977)
15. Boutros Michael El Akh - (Ain Ebel - September 1975)
16. Georges Gerges - (Guardians of the Cedars party civilians -
Jezzine, April 1998)
17. Tony Kfoury (Guardians of the Cedars party civilians- Rashaya-
March 6, 1985)
18. Moustafa Khalil (Guardians of the Cedars party civilians-
Zghdraya-Sidon - June 6, 1985)
19. Abdel Raouf El Hajj (Guardians of the Cedars party civilians -Sidon
- June 30, 1985)
20. Mahmoud Hafouda (Guardians of the Cedars party - Sidon - June 30,
21. Sleiman El Asmar Guardians of the Cedars party - (Sidon - August
30, 1985)
22. Maroun Matar (Guardians of the Cedars party - January 22, 1986)
23. Wadih Moussa (Guardians of the Cedars party- Jabal Safi - February
14, 1986)
24. Philip Moussa (Guardians of the Cedars party- Jabal Safi - February
14, 1986)
25. Khalil Traboulsi (Guardians of the Cedars party- Ayneta - February
17, 1986)
26. Jihad Saikali (Guardians of the Cedars party- Rihane - June 20,
27. Antoine Abou Ghannam (Guardians of the Cedars party- Yater Road -
June 15, 1986)
28. Assaad Moussa (Guardians of the Cedars party- Labaa-Kfarfalous-Ain
El Mir - June 19, 1986)
29. Edgard Hakim (Guardians of the Cedars party- Darb El Sim - June 20,
30. Dani Najm (Guardians of the Cedars party- Sabbah-Jezzine - July 5,
31. Lucien Estephan (Guardians of the Cedars party- Tallet Sejod -
August 10, 1986)
32. Khalil El Jellad (Guardians of the Cedars party- Tallet Sejod -
September 18, 1986)
33. Joseph Youssef (Guardians of the Cedars party- Tallet Sejod -
September 18, 1986)
34. Elie Youssef (Guardians of the Cedars party- Anan Kfarfalous - June
35. Charbel Kassouf (Guardians of the Cedars party- Jabal Safi - April
36. Jad Morkos (Guardians of the Cedars party- Anan-Kfarfalous -
September 1987)
37. Youssef Matta (Guardians of the Cedars party- Jabal Safi - October
38. Tony Hourani (Guardians of the Cedars party- Ain Majdalain-Jezzine
- May 1992)
39. Tony bakhos (Guardians of the Cedars party- Kroum el Arz-Jezzine -
October 1995)
40. Assaad Nammour (Guardians of the Cedars party- Sabbah-Bkassine -
September 1996)
41. Hussein El Fkih (Guardians of the Cedars party- Sabbah-Bkassine -
September 1996)
42. Selim Risha (Guardians of the Cedars party- Roum-Bessry - December
43. Samir Youssef Roumiyeh (Guardians of the Cedars party- Kfarhouna -
March 1997)
44. Georges Gerges (Guardians of the Cedars party- Jezzine- April 1998)
45. Roukoz Roukoz (Guardians of the Cedars party- Ain Majdalain-Jezzine
- September 1998)
46. Joseph Chamoun (Guardians of the Cedars party- Ain
Majdalain-Jezzine - September 1998)
48. 2 Students - (Anan-Roum Road - 1988)
50. 2 Students - (Kfarhouna-Jezzine - 1997)
56. Ezzat Elias Julien, his mother, wife and 3 children - (Qlayaa)

- December 1999 - Taqfir wal Hijra, a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist
movement established in the mountains of Dinniyeh in Tripoli, under
Syrian's control, ambushed a Lebanese Army unit in the village of
Assoun, killing 5 Soldiers. The clashes remained until first week of
January. The Lebanese Army reported a total number of 11 Lebanese
soldiers killed. The group allegedly bombed 4 Orthodox Christian
churches in and around Tripoli in October and November of last year.
The same group is linked to the Ain El Helweh Palestinian's camp, in
Saida They all operate under Syrian's command.

- April 11, 2000 - David Ajaltouni and Alain Khalifeh, students at the
University of Esib - USJ, were killed with a booby Trapped Box, placed
in their Classroom. Ajaltouni, who opened the box containing a hand
grenade was immediately killed. Khalifeh, died later on at the
hospital. 3 other students were seriously injured. It was a Syrian
Warning to the rebellious students.

February 10, 2001 - Syrian-Iranian groups excavated the Cemetery of the
Shiite Village of "Aytaroun", in South Lebanon and dug out 17
Southerner Lebanese Soldiers' corpse, from the graves. This profanation
was executed on order of "Hassan Ali As-Sayyed".

The 17 bodies dug out from the graves were the bodies of:

1. Mansour Khalil
2. Aakanen Ali
3. Aalik Samih
4. Droubi Hassan
5. Marmar Ali
6. Mustafa Yasser
7. Abdel Hassen Assayed Hassen
8. Fakih Mohammad
9. Hijazy Fouad
10. Kassem Ali Hussein
11. Taoube Bahige
12. Mawwassi Abed
13. Awada Wafic
14. Assayed Mohammad Mustafa
15. Abbass Aadel
16. Shour Salah
17. Farhat Hussein

*January 24th 2002:see below. CarBomb Assassination of MP and Minister Mr. Elie Hobeika, with his party of 3.


- May 7, 2002 - Ramzi Albert Irani, a member of The LF Party was
assassinated. LF double Agents kidnapped him from Hamra Street in West
Beirut, on his way home. He was found, 17 days later, mutilated and
killed, in the trunk of his own car. It is widely believed that an internal
rivalry within the LF, linked to Strida JaJa and her " extramarital Affairs "
were at the heart of this Murder Mystery.

- October 11, 2002 - Henri Daou, a member of the PNL Party, was
kidnapped and detained in Syrian Prisons; his fate remains unknown.
(SOLIDE Org.,"UNReport1"; UN Human Right Committee, "71session/art.10")

- November 21, 2002 - At 7.30am, a Syrian Agent assassinated Bonnie
Penner-Witheral, 31 years old, an American missionary, in Saida-Sidon.
She was found with a bullet in the head and 2 others in the chest. It
was a Syrian warning against the American new policy, in the Middle

From 1975 till present - The Syrians kidnapped, deported, detained and
tortured thousands of Lebanese in their prisons in Syria. Many of them
were first tortured in Beau Rivage, Anjar and other Syrian Posts in
Lebanon, by Ghazi kanaan and Rustom Ghazali, 2 Syrian
commanders-in-chief, before being deported to Syria.
Faraj Obeid, Adel Khalaf Ajouri, Radwan Shakib Ibrahim and Joseph
Zoghaib died under torture and from ill- treatment. Several
International Human Rights Organizations reported it. (SOLIDE
Org.,"UNReport1"; UN Human Rights Committee,"71session/art.10").

- On October 1987, Amnesty International released a report about
torture in Syrian prisons. The report entitled, "SYRIA - torture by the
security forces" clearly mentions in page 25 that: "... people arrested
or abducted in Lebanon are usually transferred to Syria soon
afterwards. However, they are usually taken first to prisons or
detention centers in areas under the control or jurisdiction of Syrian
forces. It is at this early stage in their detention, while undergoing
preliminary interrogation, that detainees first experience torture or
ill treatment at the hands of Syrian forces in Lebanon. As in Syria,
torture continues throughout their subsequent detention..." The same
report enumerates 38 methods of torture inside the Syrian detention
centers and prisons. (Amnesty International, "SYRIA - torture by the
security forces"- 1987; SOLIDE Org.,"UNReport1").

- On May 1997, Human Rights Watch / Middle East, declared in its
report, the following: "... Lebanese complicity in abuses by Syrian
forces sometimes goes beyond official acquiescence and becomes direct
collaboration with Syrian forces in carrying out reported
'disappearances' ...". (Human Rights Watch / Middle East- May 1997).

In May 1984, the "Swiss Association for the Defense of the Liberties of
Political Prisoners in Syria" published in Geneva, a document entitled
"The Rights of Man in Syria" and which refers to the treatments exerted
on political prisoners held by the Syrian Secret Services:

1. The prisoner is stripped naked.
2. His whole body is shaved.
3. Cigarette butts are extinguished over the most sensitive places of
his body
4. They burn his scalp.
5. They pull out his nails.
6. They tie his genitals with a nylon thread that they secure to a nail
on the wall after transfixing the prisoner to a ring fixed on the
opposite wall. Then, one of the tormentors strikes the taut nylon
thread repeatedly with a stick.
7. They flog the soles of a prisoner's feet with lashes of a whip, a
cane, or a plastic pipe, a minimum of two hundred lashes a time.
8. Then, stretch out the prisoner inside a container of cold water.
9. They invert the prisoner into a car's tire's rim and then strike him
all over (the process: they insert a leg into the middle of the tire,
followed by the head and the arms in such a manner that the prisoner is
bent over and immobilized in the form of a U inside the tire's circle).

10. They hang the prisoner by his feet with his head down.
11. They force the prisoner to remain standing during several days
while preventing him from sitting down or falling asleep by ordering
him to raise his arms fully stretched and very straight.
12. They force the prisoner to stand for long periods of time on one
foot; administering blows each time he lowers his raised foot.
13. They force the prisoners to run while carrying heavy loads and
sustaining blows until utterly exhausted or faint.
14. Pour, all of a sudden, boiling water over the prisoners.
15. They force the prisoner to sit on a stake.
16. They force the prisoner to sit on the neck of a bottle.
17. They subject the prisoner to electric shock by using an alternative
electric current and tying the wires to the most sensitive parts of the
body, especially the genitals.
18. They force pump water or air into the prisoner.
19. They force sexual intercourse with the prisoner.
20. They tear out chunks of the prisoner's flesh from various parts of
his body with the help of pliers.
21. They rope the prisoner to a car and drive it to full speed until
death occurs or till the victims' bodies are torn apart and then the
victim's bodies are desecrated by gouging an eye or cutting an ear, the
tongue, the fingers and in some cases the genitals, and by sticking
them into the victim's mouth.
22. They force the prisoner to run around a large room surrounded by
torturers who strike him with diverse instruments of torture.
23. Force the prisoner to drink his own urine.
24. They throw the prisoner into a basin of electrified water.
25. They tie the prisoner's genitals to prevent him from urinating
after forcing him to drink diuretic liquids.

The Syrians, the Palestinians and their allies, massacred and killed
approximately two hundred thousand Lebanese; handicapped twenty five
thousand; exiled half a million citizens; kidnapped, deported and
detained in Syria thousands of civilians whose fate remain unknown,
until this day.

Despite the long and tragic list of monstrosities committed against the
Lebanese over a period of 27 years, the world continues to protect
Syria, reinforce its evil power over Lebanon and discuss Sabra and
Shatilla as if no tragedy struck Lebanon before or ever after...



*The Term " Syrian Agents" designates: Syrians, Palestinians,
Syrian-Iranian under Hezballah or the Islamic Jihad group's name. The
Syrian's Regime of Damascus orchestrates and supervises all terrorist
groups in Lebanon.

*Taqfir wal Hijra group, Al Qaida members of Ben Ladden in Lebanon and
other terrorist groups are all orchestrated by the Syrian's Regime of
Damascus and under Syrian control in Lebanon. They entered Lebanon from
Syrian-Lebanese Borders.

*The word "Martyr" symbolizes all the civilians who heroically
defended their regions and its inhabitants to prevent extensive attacks
and massacres. Some Martyrs were defending independently and some
others through their political affiliation, as the Guardians of the
Cedars, the Tanzeem, the PNL and the Phalangist-Kataeb.

* The SLA represents a Unit of 600 soldiers of the Lebanese Army sent
to the South, on 1978. The Commanding Officers, Saad Haddad and Sami
Chidiac were officially designated.

* Syrian "Collaborators" designate: Lebanese Agents, operating for
the Syrian's Regime.

* Syrian soldiers were present in the Palestinian's Camps in Lebanon
since 1969. (Livre Blanc, p.140)

* Palestinians and Syrian soldiers were provided with more munitions
and their presence in the Camps was reinforced, in 1973. (Livre Blanc

* Syrian soldiers were involved with the Palestinians since the first
Genocide committed against the Lebanese. (Livre Blanc p.120)

* The Palestinians were under Syrian President Hafez el Assad's
Authority. (Livre Blanc, p.122)

* Syria hosts terrorist headquarters of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad
and Hamas, in Damascus and turns Lebanon into a base of International
terrorism. Terrorist Training camps are placed in the vicinity of
Damascus and within Lebanese territory.

* Syria provides refuge and protection for Palestinian and Islamic
terrorism. Among the Palestinian groups are Fatah, Saiqa, the
Palestinian Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), the
Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP), the Abu Nidal
Group, the Abu Musa Group, the Palestinian Liberation Front, etc. Among
the Islamic terrorism are Taqfir wal Hijra group, Al Qaida and
Hezballah with its diverse branches as, the Islamic Jihad Revolutionary
Justice Organization and the Organization of the oppressed. Syria who,
patronized Hijackings, Airplane Bombings, and Airport Assaults, directs
its international terrorist operations, worldwide.


- Support of Lebanese in Detention and Exile - (SOLIDE
Organization),"UNReport1", "UN71Rec/art.10","Sol 14 Oct 02"; "Syrian
Embassy Reply-Stockholm".
- Amnesty International, "SYRIA - torture by the security forces"-1987
- Human Rights Watch / Middle East- May 1997).
- Foundation for Human and Humanitarian Rights, "the October Debacle
Report on Lebanon- Fall of 1990", Beirut 4 November 1990;
- Swiss Association for the Defense of the Liberties of Political
Prisoners in Syria, (May 1984).
- UN Human Rights Committee,"UN71 Recommendations"- (71st session).
- The Catholic Center of information - (Press release- 22/09/ 1983).
- US spokesman, Mr. Allen Ron berg- (Press Release- 8/09/1983).
- Caritas-Lebanon- (Press Release- Paris, 22/11/1983).
- The Private hospitals Association - (Paris Match, No.216; witnesses
Live Interviews).
- French newspaper, "Le Quotidien de Paris"- (12/11/1983).
- French newspaper, "Le Matin"- (25/05/1982)
- Paris Match, " No.2161-No.2162 - No.1403"
- Interviews with Live Witnesses (Bsouss-Dahr El Wahesh-Shekka).
- French Press, Media and Agency: L'Express; Le Monde; Le Nouvel
Observateur; TF1; AFP.
- Al Mashereq, Center of Information and research,"Lebanese Newspaper
An-Nahar"- 1975...1991; "Lebanese Newspaper Al-Shark - 1975...1991";
"Lebanese Newspaper Al-Anwar - 1975...1991; "Lebanese Newspaper
Al-Bairak - 1975...1991; "L'Orient-Le jour"; Le Reveil, 2/8/78-.
- Hanf Theodor,"Libanon-Koexistenz Im Krieg".
- Nicolas Nasr, "Faillite Syrienne Au Liban" (Tome I- Tome II).
- Terrorismus1 (1991).
- Anhoury Sami,"Un Enfer Familier".
- Mando de la Fuerza Libanesa, "Libano Para Separar la
Crisis"(Departamento de la R. Exteriores-1982)
- Mando de la Fuerza Libanesa, "Chronologia de Sucessos Relativos a la
Injerencia y a la Presencia Siria en el Libano".
- Centre Catholique D'information, "Images et Chronlogie de la Guerre
du Liban" - Dar El Massira.
- Centre Libanais D'Information, "La Guerre Libano-Palestinienne"ou
"Comment une poignee de jeunes firent Echec aux jeux des Nations.
- Rondeau Daniel,"Chronique.du Liban Rebelle").
- Ghoerghiu Virgil, "Christ Au Liban".
- Chamoun Camille, "Crise Au Liban.
- Wehbeh L., "Houwala El Abbtal"- 1975/1976.
- May and Alfred Murr, "Distribute the Palestinian Arabs...evict the
Syrians and their acolytes from Lebanon"
- The Catholic Center of information, "Houroub El Aliha"- 1984/1985
- Gilles Delafon, "Beyrouth Les soldats de l'Islam".
- Lebanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, "Le Livre Blanc", 1976- (Hafez
el Assad Speech, July 20-1976)....

- Mando de la Fuerza Libanesa, "Libano Para Separar la
Crisis"(Departamento de la R. Exteriores-1982)
- Centre Catholique D'information, "Images et Chronlogie de la Guerre
du Liban" - Dar El Massira.
- Centre Libanais D'Information, "La Guerre Libano-Palestinienne"ou
"Comment une poignee de jeunes firent Echec aux jeux des Nations.
- Wehbeh L., "Houwala El Abbtal"- 1975/1976.
- The Catholic Center of information, "Houroub El Aliha"- 1984/1985
- Alain Menargues: Les secrets de la guerre du Liban....
- Stern Magazine "Jan/Feb. 1976".
- Paris Match " No.2161-No.2162 - No.1403".

- An-Nahar - (1975...1991)
- Al-Shark - (1975...1991)
- Al-Anwar - (1975...1991)
- Al-Bairak - (1975...1991)

- AP
- Al Mashereq, Center of Information and research.