Tuesday, April 10, 2007

The Political Assassination of the 21st Century, the Terrorist Car Bomb of the "Moderate Western Civilized World" of the Dick Cheney , GWB's Cabal


(Sneak Preview )This is for those who question the veracity of these
seemingly improbable Neoconville "alliances" for Murders in Lebanon
and many other parts of this world....

Also, I will add another "scoop" for my readers: Very Very soon,
you are going to read, in the MEDIA, a major study/analysis, about
yet another tantalizing story, courtesy of the US DOD and all US
Government agencies, active in MURDERS on such a large scale...It
will make the Abou Ghraib Prisons story pale in comparison.....

FIDEL CASTRO graduated from Havana Law School, but
attended a sort of "LLM" at YALE Law school, PRIOR
at YALE University by CIA...R. NIXON will nurture this
relationship later,when he became V.P. ...
That's for how long he has been CIA, before coming
down from the mountains....with few buddies,to take
over CUBA,after CIA threw out Battista and into
Florida with a hundred million USD to live
happily ever after in FL. USA, and
give a free rein to CASTRO over CUBA, taking
Cubans hostage for 50 years,and counting, in order
to serve CIA and spy on the Soviets and drain
their resources to HELP,over time in breaking
that ugly empire....all the while Castro was
serving the interests of the USA worldwide...

Hence, CIA will ensure that CUBA gets all the help
it needs for a soft landing... after the 1989/90 debacle
of the Soviet Union, and CUBA is still being helped
today by CIA covertly... to ensure a softer landing after
Fidel Castro, with more help for Raoul Castro and the CUBAN
Army, which has been transformed into a tourism subcontractor
and travel services for tourists in Cuba...

Mr. Allende’s role model, Fidel Castro, seized power in 1959 and continues to rule tyrannically over a starving and impoverished population nearly 50 years later. Castro has executed many thousands of people, but curiously enough, not one single European Union judicial official has ever chosen to indict or prosecute him....because they know better from CIA.... but hypocritically they kept Mr.Allende's cause alive... for decades...?

The hideously depressing thing is that Cuba under Battista--Cuba in 1957--was a developed country. Cuba in 1957 had lower infant mortality than France, Belgium, West Germany, Israel, Japan, Austria, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. Cuba in 1957 had doctors and nurses: as many doctors and nurses per capita as the Netherlands, and more than Britain or Finland. Cuba in 1957 had as many vehicles per capita as Uruguay, Italy, or Portugal. Cuba in 1957 had 45 TVs per 1000 people--fifth highest in the world. Cuba today has fewer telephones per capita than it had TVs in 1957.

You take a look at the standard Human Development Indicator variables--GDP per capita, infant mortality, education--and you try to throw together an HDI for Cuba in the late 1950s, and you come out in the range of Japan, Ireland, Italy, Spain, Israel. Today? Today the UN puts Cuba's HDI in the range of Lithuania, Trinidad, and Mexico. (And Carmelo Mesa-Lago thinks the UN's calculations are seriously flawed: that Cuba's right HDI peers today are places like China, Tunisia, Iran, and South Africa.)

Thus I don't understand lefties who talk about the achievements of the Cuban Revolution: "...to have better health care, housing, education, and general social relations than virtually all other comparably developed countries." Yes, Cuba today has a GDP per capita level roughly that of--is "comparably developed"--Bolivia or Honduras or Zimbabwe, but given where Cuba was in 1957 we ought to be talking about how it is as developed as Italy or Spain....

Is the CIA Trying to Kill Venezuela's Hugo Chavez? they finally did 2013...


NSA/FDDC/Firstfruits/James Bruce Spy on America.

(Dec. 30, 2005) -- The organization partly involved in directing the National Security Agency program to collect intelligence on journalists -- Firstfruits --is the Foreign Denial and Deception Committee (FDDC), a component of the National Intelligence Council.

The last reported chairman of the inter-intelligence agency group was Dr. Larry Gershwin, the CIA's adviser on science and technology matters, a former national intelligence officer for strategic programs, and one of the primary promoters of the Iraqi disinformation con man and alcoholic who was code named "Curveball."

Gershwin was also in charge of the biological weapons portfolio at the National Intelligence Council where he worked closely with John Bolton and the CIA's Alan Foley -- director of the CIA's Office of Weapons Intelligence, Nonproliferation, and Arms Control (WINPAC) -- and Frederick Fleitz -- who Foley sent from WINPAC to work in Bolton's State Department office -- in helping to cook Iraqi WMD "intelligence" on behalf of Vice President Dick Cheney and Scooter Libby....
Venezuelanalysis - Apr 19, 2007

Is the CIA Trying to Kill Venezuela's Hugo Chávez?

By Chris Carlson

"I want to kill that son of a bitch," said the Capitan of the Venezuelan
National Guard, Thomas Guillen in a recorded telephone call with his wife.
In the call, played on Venezuela's state TV channel last month, the Capitan
reveals his and his father's plans to kill President Hugo Chávez. The next
day, the Capitan and his father, retired General Ramon Guillén Dávila, were
arrested and taken into custody for conspiring to kill the President of
Venezuela. [1]

In recent weeks, Hugo Chávez has increasingly warned that the United States
has plans to kill him and is stepping up its activity against him and his
government. Chávez has also claimed that the CIA is working with
associates of the famous Cuban terrorist and CIA agent Posada Carriles,
designing plans for his assassination. But could there be any truth to all
of this? Could this be a classic CIA-conspiracy to kill another official
"enemy" of the United States? A quick look at the connections between the
CIA and the General Ramon Guillén Dávila shows that it definitely is a

The United States manages to spread its tentacles into different countries
around the world in various ways, influencing and intervening in the
politics of sovereign nations. In Latin America, one of the most common
ways is through supposed "drug operations." The CIA has been known to run
"anti-drug" operations in countries like Bolivia, Colombia and Ecuador.
In Venezuela, such CIA-created "anti-drug" operations were led in the
1980's by the same General Ramon Guillén Dávila who was recently planning
to kill Chávez. According to the Miami Herald, Guillen was the CIA's most
trusted man in Venezuela and the senior official collaborating with the CIA
during the 1980's. [2]

As head of the Venezuela National Guard, Guillén worked closely with the
CIA to infiltrate and gather information about Colombian drug trafficking
operations. But instead of curbing drug operations, Guillén and the CIA
ended up smuggling cocaine themselves, and the whole thing exploded when 60
Minutes aired an expose in 1993. The CIA had collaborated with Guillén to
smuggle the incredible sum of 22 tons of cocaine into the United States.[3]

After US customs intercepted a shipment of cocaine entering the country
through Miami Internatoinal Airport, an official investigation revealed
that General Guillén was responsible. But according to investigative
journalist Michael Levine, Guillén was a CIA "asset" operating under CIA
orders and protection, a fact that was later admitted by the CIA. General
Guillén was never extradited for trial in the U.S. [4]

So is General Ramon Guillén Dávila still a CIA "asset" working to knock off
the Venezuelan President? Whether or not the General maintains ties with
the CIA, it does seem that he would be a likely candidate for
destabilization efforts against the Chávez government.

According to the web page School of the Americas Watch, General Guillén
graduated from the infamous U.S. combat training school in 1967. [5] The
School of the Americas, renamed the Western Hemisphere Institute for
Security Cooperation in 2001, is a US military facility that is used to
train Latin American soldiers in counterinsurgency techniques and
interrogation tactics.

As another of the many tentacles of the U.S. Empire, the School of the
Americas has been called the "biggest base for destabilization in Latin
America." Located in Fort Benning, Georgia, the school sends its graduates
throughout the region to repress left-wing and communist movements and to
influence the political situations in Latin American countries. The school
has frequently supported regimes with a history of employing death squads
and torture to repress their populations.

Last week, during the 5th anniversary of the 2002 U.S.-supported coup
attempt against the Venezuelan government, Chávez emphasized that "the
empire never rests." He assured that the United States, along with the
Venezuelan elite will continue conspiring in order to remove him from
power, and that they would never accept the Bolivarian Revolution.

It would be no surprise, however, if the CIA were planning to kill or
overthrow Hugo Chávez. The criminal organization has a long and dirty
history of covert operations including assassinations, economic warfare,
and rigged elections. In Latin America alone the CIA has overthrown
numerous regimes in places like Nicaragua, Chile, Panama, Brazil, Grenada,
Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and, most recently, Haiti in 2004.

What would be more surprising is if the CIA is not searching for a way to
get rid of the popular Venezuelan President. After all, Chávez has proven
to be quite a threat to the interests of the U.S. Empire and their
corporate sponsors. Chávez has sharply rejected Washington's neo-liberal
agenda, nationalized major sectors of the economy, freed his country from
IMF and World Bank mandates, strengthened OPEC, taken control of the
nation's oil industry, and strengthened south-south integration across the

However, what is even more threatening to the interests of the empire is
that the revolution in Venezuela serves as an example in the region, and is
now spreading to other places. Countries like Bolivia and Ecuador are now
living their own revolutions, replicating the Venezuelan experience.

It seems feasible that former CIA "asset" General Ramon Guillén Dávila was
conspiring with the CIA to get rid of the most consolidated leftist
movement in Latin America today. But regardless of whether or not the CIA
can manage to extinguish the fire in Venezuela, it might be too late for
them to control the growing wave of leftist revolutions in the region.

End Notes:

1. "Presentan grabación sobre supuesto plan de magnicidio contra
Chávez," ABN / Aporrea.org, 07/03/07

2. Jerry Meldon, Contra-Crack Guide: Reading Between the Lines, 1998.

3. Howard G. Chua-Eoan, "Confidence Games," Time Magazine, Monday, Nov.
29, 1993,

4. Michael Levine, "Mainstream Media: The Drug War Shills?,"

5. School of the Americas Watch, Notorious Graduates from Venezuela,

[Chris Carlson is a freelance journalist and activist living in Venezuela.
See his personal blog at: http://www.gringoinvenezuela.com]


JFK, was assassinated by CIA, they conspired
with the VP Lyndon Johnson, who was a murderer
just like Dick Cheney... of his time, and put the
blame on the Mafia...Lee Harvey Oswald and CUBA,
and Jack Rubenstein ( Ruby) who was also
killed like Oswald... Hence Las Vegas was "given"
to the MAFIA, to do as they please since, as a safe
Heaven for the MAFIOSIS...where Israel gets a cut...,
courtesy of the US Government Mafias, It still is today.
Top Secret British dossier on JFK assassination.
According to British intelligence sources, there exists
somewhere in the bowels of British intelligence archives
an internal Foreign Office assessment of the Warren
Report on the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
The report, classified Top Secret, Blue Circulation
(distribution strictly limited), concluded that there
were 162 inconsistencies in the Warren Report.
The most important conclusion of British intelligence
was that a single gunman could not have carried out
the assassination.
British Foreign Office report: Lee Harvey Oswald could
not have been the lone gunman...
CIA Helped the Colombians, with Maps, charts
and Flight plans since the inception
of the Drug trade.... they probably still do
today... Castro was the conduit...
This is but a sample for the world to see about
the good old USA's Government in action....
The great American People are being lied to
daily for decades....


Read the following insightful words from a U.S. service member in Iraq. These are words to ponder, for hours, if need be:

"Our country is amazing and a place worth holding dear, but very insidious things lurk in our government. Things we see here. Things you will never hear about. Things that you would never think could come of America. Be careful what you believe. Not everyone here dies the way the paper says they do. Some people aren't as brave as they say. Some people were more heroic than you will ever know."

Ed. note: Iraq is a debacle, a bloodbath of monumental proportions. If the Democrats continue to drag their feet and enable the Bush-Cheney war criminal administration, they will be relegated to the same fate as the Republican Party: political obscurity when the American people decide to exact their revenge on the architects of the current American dilemma and nightmare....

Private sector contractors -- the war profiteers from Blackwater, Halliburton, Triple Canopy, and all the others start, with less than three years of experience, at a salary of $86,000 for moving boxes around in a warehouse. Their active duty counterparts, with much more experience, earn $32,000 a year. However, the contractors can leave Iraq whenever they see fit.

The dawn prepares the scent of grief
Sabah (sunrise) lights, there is no one
I hear the sobbing of innocent souls
The cry in the dark, from where we begin
Oh time, Oh time
Besides the BASKINTA grave lie pictures of memories
Their faces overwhelmed with desperation
Time prepares silver dreams
Pain and grief is unforgettable
Oh time, Oh time
OH Elie HOBEIKA , ah Oh HK, Phoenicia's Phoenix for Ever !!!


Sneak Preview : UMBRA

"In my experience, most people do not indulge the absurdity and cruelty of the "rules" of rampant power. They do not contort their morality and intellect to comply with double standards and the notion of approved evil, of worthy and unworthy victims. They would, if they knew, grieve for all the lives, families, careers, hopes and dreams destroyed by Blair and Bush. The sure evidence is the British public's wholehearted response to the 2004 tsunami, shaming that of the government.
Certainly, they would agree wholeheartedly with Robert H Jackson, chief of counsel for the United States at the Nuremberg trials of Nazi leaders at the end of the Second World War. "Crimes are crimes," he said, "whether the United States does them or whether Germany does them, and we are not prepared to lay down a rule of criminal conduct which we would not be willing to have invoked against us."

As with Henry Kissinger and Donald Rumsfeld,Ariel Sharon, Shaoul Mofaz, and soon Condi Rice , Elliott Abrams and many others in Syria and Israel, who dare not travel to certain countries for fear of being prosecuted as war criminals, Blair as a private citizen may no longer be untouchable. On 20 March, Baltasar Garzón, the tenacious Spanish judge who pursued Augusto Pinochet, called for indictments against those responsible for "one of the most sordid and unjustifiable episodes in recent human history" – Iraq. Five days later, the chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, to which Britain is a signatory, said that Blair could one day face war-crimes charges.

These are critical changes in the way the sane world thinks – again, thanks to the Reich of Blair and Bush. However, we live in the most dangerous of times. On 6 April, Blair accused "elements of the Iranian regime" of "backing, financing, arming and supporting terrorism in Iraq". He offered no evidence, and the Ministry of Defence has none. This is the same Goebbels-like refrain with which he and his coterie, Gordon Brown included, brought an epic bloodletting to Iraq. How long will the rest of us continue looking from the side? "

This is for your eyes only! I received this "xxxx's" email just when you announced you were leaving xxxx and people were not to write to you at this address, so I didn't forward it to you with my take on it. This is the second time this year someone has made what I consider spurious claims. This one is more so, because nowhere in the article is a last name for the xxxx you referred to. How many xxxx are there in this world?

I am beginning to wonder if these claims aren't being orchestrated to shut us up. The first one came from a London solicitor claiming to represent Sheikh bin Mahfouz, demanding the removal of an article and a retraction/apology. When I pressed them for a signed and witnessed affidavit that they truly represented Mahfouz, I got instead a bunch of musty photocopies in a large white envelope, with no return address -- the same crap they sent me as email attachments. I heard nothing further directly from them. Then they went after the reporter who wrote the article and who happens to be in the UK. Aware of the UK's rotten libel laws, I removed the article at the reporter's request. Soon after that they went after Scoop and Chossudovsky. Scoop folded and I am not sure what Michel decided to do, because he, too, was leery of the whole thing.....

Bottom line: While I don't intimidate, I don't wish to cause anyone grief. So I will defer to whatever you think we should do. One thing that these people never consider, though, is that these articles are cited and/or lifted by other sites and cached by Google, and there ain't nuttin' we can do about that.ever...More in time....

Another small reminder for all:
see 2 following articles and the obvious....

26/10/05 Hariri Reportedly Assassinated To Make Way For Large US Air Base In Lebanon.

Oct 26, 2005
By Wayne Madsen,

Online Journal Contributing Writer


According to high-level Lebanese intelligence sources-Christian and Muslim-former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri was reportedly assassinated in a sophisticated explosion-by-wire bombing authorized by the Bush administration and Ariel Sharon’s Likud government in “Israel”.

There are also strong indications that the Hariri assassination was carried out by the same rogue Syrian intelligence agents used in the 2002 car bombing assassination of Lebanese Christian leader Elie Hobeika, who was prepared to testify against Sharon in a Brussels human rights court. That case involved the Israeli Prime Minister’s role in the 1982 massacre by Israeli troops of Palestinian refugees at the Sabra and Chatilla camps in Beirut. The Hariri assasination used wire-bombing technology because Hariri’s security personnel used electronic countermeasures to fend off a remote control bomb using wireless means. It has been revealed that the Bush administration has used Syrian intelligence agents to torture al Qaeda suspects through the program known as “extraordinary rendition.”

Hariri, a pan-Arabist and Lebanese nationalist, was known to adamantly oppose the construction of a major U.S. air base in the north of Lebanon. The United States wants Syrian troops completely out of Lebanon before construction of the base is initiated. Hariri’s meetings with Hezbollah shortly before his death also angered Washington and Jerusalem, according to the Lebanese intelligence sources.

Washington and Jerusalem media experts spun Hariri’s assassination as being the work of Syrian intelligence on orders from President Bashar Assad. However, a number of Middle East political observers in Washington claim that Hariri’s assassination was not in the interests of Assad, but that the Bush and Sharon administrations had everything to gain from it, including the popular Lebanese uprising against the Syrian occupation.

Lebanese intelligence sources report that even without a formal agreement with Lebanon, the contract for the northern Lebanese air base has been let by the Pentagon to Jacobs Engineering Group of Pasadena, California. Other construction support will be provided by Bechtel Corporation.

Jacobs Engineering and Jacobs Sverdrup are currently contracted for work in Saudi Arabia for Aramco, Iraq for the U.S. occupation authority, Bosnia, Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Yemen, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates.

The Lebanese air base is reportedly to be used as a transit and logistics hub for U.S. forces in Iraq and as a rest and relaxation location for U.S. troops in the region. In addition, the Lebanese base will be used to protect U.S. oil pipelines in the region (Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan and Mosul/Kirkuk-Ceyhan) as well as to destabilize the Assad government in Syria. The size of the planned air base reportedly is on the scale of the massive American Al Udeid air base in Qatar.

A number of intelligence sources have reported that assassinations of foreign leaders like Hariri and Hobeika are ultimately authorized by two key White House officials, Deputy Chief of Staff Karl Rove and Deputy National Security Adviser Elliot Abrams. In addition, Abrams is the key liaison between the White House and Sharon’s office for such covert operations, including political assassinations.

“Abrams is the guy they [the Israelis] go to for a wink and a nod for such ops,” reported one key source.

Wayne Madsen is a Washington, DC-based journalist and columnist and the co-author of “America’s Nightmare: The Presidency of George Bush II.”


The Planning started way back in the US Strategic Agreement in 1998....

The Targets:

The TOOLS.... and the Kleiat Air Force Base in North Lebanon ???

The Murders and the "Outcry"...







بعد تحول الشمال الى مقر لوجستي للسلفيين «الأطلسي» يقرر استعمال مطار القليعات كقاعدة عسكرية جوية وللتدخل السريع
15 نيسان 2007
بدرا باخوس الفغالي

تحت غطاء محاربة التيارات السلفية الاصولية بعد أن تحول لبنان وتحديداً مناطقه الشمالية ‏منه بدءاً من عكار مروراً بطرابلس وصولا الى سفوح الضنية، الى مقر لوجستي لقوافل من ‏المجاهدين العرب المشرقيين ومن دول افريقيا الشمالية,
حسمت قيادة حلف شمال الاطلسي بتوجيه ‏مباشر من الولايات المتحدة الاميركية قرارها بعد عامين من التردد وقررت ضم الاراضي ‏اللبنانية الى لائحة الدول الواقعة في الساحل الافريقي لاقامة قواعد عسكرية جوية.‏
وفي هذا السياق، تبين لهيئة اركان الجيوش الاعضاء في حلف الاطلسي اهمية إقامة قاعدة جوية في ‏مطار القليعات القريب من الحدود اللبنانية - السورية ناهيك عن امكانية استخدام هذه ‏المنطقة الشاسعة المساحة كنقطة تمركز لقوات مجوقلة مخصصة للتدخل السريع.‏
وكان وفد عسكري اميركي - الماني - تركي قام بجولة استقصائية في منطقة عكار وقال في ‏تقريره الذي رفعه الى مقر الحلف الاطلسي في بروكسيل، ان إقامة القاعدة العسكرية سيسهم في ‏الإنعاش الإنمائي والاقتصادي في هذه المنطقة الشمالية المحرومة والتي لن تتأخر مع بدء توافد ‏عديد القوات الاطلسية في الازدهار على غرار ما تشهده غالبية القرى والمدن الجنوبية مع ‏انتشار قوات الطوارئ الدولية وإن كان حتى الآن بصورة خجولة!‏
ورأ معدّو التقرير أن التركيز على الشق المالي وانعكاس الإيجابية على سكان المنطقة سيساعد ‏بدون شك الحكومة اللبنانية على تسويف هذا المشروع تمهيداً لإعطاء موافقتها على إقامة ‏القاعدة العسكرية الاطلسية وان كان تحت عنوان «مركز دولي لتدريب الجيش اللبناني وأجهزته ‏

كتب د. عصام نعمان مقالا في صحيفة القدس العربي، بعنوان "أميركا...الحمْل في إيران والولادة في لبنان"، ألمح فيه الى أن أعضاء نافذين في الوفود الأمريكية، أشاروا إلى مخططً يرمي إلى إعتماد مطار القليعات (شمال لبنان) كقاعدة للحلف الأطلسي، تكون لها وظيفة في تطويق سورية ومنعها من إعادة بناء نفوذها ودورها السابقين في لبنان، كما يكون لها دور في تسليح وتدريب وتجهيز القوى والعناصر المناوئة لسورية ولحزب الله ولمنظمات المقاومة الفلسطينية المعارضة لنهج السيد محمود عباس.










Who assassinated MP and Minister Mr. Elie Hobeika,
January 24th 2002, 0930AM, in Lebanon. [Hazmieh]?

اغتيال الحريري: البدء بردم الحفرة
24 نيسان 2007
بناء على قرار قضائي لبناني بدأ ردم الحفرة الواسعة التي خلفتها عملية التفجير التي اودت في 14 شباط/فبراير عام 2005 بحياة رئيس الحكومة الاسبق رفيق الحريري كما افاد اليوم الثلاثاء مصدر قضائي. واوضح المصدر ان النائب العام التمييزي القاضي سعيد ميرزا والياس عيد قاضي التحقيق العدلي في عملية الاغتيال اتخذا قرار ردم الحفرة الواقعة عند الواجهة البحرية لبيروت "بعد موافقة لجنة التحقيق الدولية" المكلفة التحقيق في عملية التفجير. واضاف "ابلغت اللجنة الدولية القضاء اللبناني انها استكملت تحقيقاتها في الحفرة ولم تعد تريد منها شيئا".

وشاهد مصور فرانس برس اليوم الثلاثاء شاحنات كبيرة تفرغ حمولتها من الاتربة في الحفرة. ولم تتوفر حتى الان معلومات حول موعد فتح الطريق البحرية الرئيسية، حيث توجد الحفرة، والتي ما تزال مغلقة منذ 799 يوما.

وكان الحريري قد اغتيل في عملية تفجير ضخمة ادت الى مقتل 22 شخصا اخر. وتقوم لجنة تحقيق دولية بالتحقيق الذي ستقدمه الى محكمة ذات طابع دولي تقرر انشاؤها بالاتفاق بين لبنان والامم المتحدة

FOREWORD: This is how Fidel Castro was able to funnel back to CIA, all the Information, gathered during his "pretending" to be a virulent Anti-American Revolutionary..." since he was recruited by CIA, while at Yale University.... prior to his seizing power in CUBA...with the direct help of CIA, aiding and Abetting of CIA....all along, throughout his long "militant" career.
“Iran and Cuba, in cooperation with each other, can bring America to its knees... The U.S. regime is very weak, and we are witnessing this weakness from close up.”

Fidel Castro, during his tour of Iran, Syria and Libya.
- May 10, 2001...



FOREWORD: This is how Fidel Castro was able to funnel back to CIA, all the Information, gathered during his "pretending" to be a virulent Anti-American Revolutionary..." since he was recruited by CIA, while at Yale University.... prior to his seizing power in CUBA...with the direct help of CIA, aiding and Abetting of CIA....all along, throughout his long "militant" career.

Since 1948 when, as a young student, Fidel Castro participated in the violence that rocked Colombian society and distributed anti-U.S. propaganda, he has been guided by two objectives: a commitment to violence and a virulent anti-Americanism. His struggle since and his forty-two years rule in Cuba have been characterized primarily by these goals....aiding and Abetting CIA....all along, throughout his long "militant" career.

In the 1960’s Castro and his brother, Raul, believed that the political and economic conditions that produced their revolution existed in Latin America and that anti-American revolutions would occur throughout the continent. Cuban agents and diplomats established contact with revolutionary, terrorist and guerrilla groups in the area and began distributing propaganda, weapons and aid. Many Latin Americans were brought to Cuba for training and then returned to their countries.

At the Tricontinental Conference held in Havana in 1966 and attended by revolutionary leaders from throughout the world, Castro insisted that bullets not ballots was the way to achieve power and provided the institutional means to promote his anti-American, violent line. He insisted that “conditions exist for an armed revolutionary struggle” and criticized those who opposed armed struggle, including some Communist leaders in Latin America, as “traitorous, rightists, and deviationists.”

Castro’s attempts in the 1960’s to bring revolutionary, anti-American regimes to power failed. His support for guerrillas and terrorist groups in Guatemala, Venezuela, and Bolivia only produced violence and suffering to those countries and their people, which repudiated violence as a means to achieve power. Violence resulted in military regimes coming to power in several Latin American countries

For the next two decades, the Cuban leadership, supported by the Soviet Union, modified its tactics. In addition to agents from the America Department, the subversive arm of Cuba’s Communist Party, Castro used his Armed Forces to help friendly groups achieve power in Latin America and Africa. In Nicaragua Cuban military personnel, weapons and intelligence supported and helped bring to power the Sandinistas. In El Salvador, a bloody civil war in part fomented and aided by Cuba, ended in a stalemate and a negotiated peace.

In Africa, Castro achieved his most significant victories. The Soviet-Cuban backed Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) faction was installed in power in Angola and other Cuban supported regimes came to power throughout the continent. The Cuban military also trained and supplied the South-West African Peoples Organization (SWAPO) and the African National Congress (ANC), forces fighting the South African regime.

Castro also became involved with African-Americans in the U.S. and with the Macheteros, a Puerto Rican terrorist group. Cuba focused particular attention on the black struggle in the U.S., providing aid and training to the Black Panthers and the Black Liberation Army, as well as a safe-haven on the island for black leaders. Castro continuously promoted the independence of Puerto Rico and supported the Macheteros who committed terrorist acts and bank robberies in the United States. Several still live in Cuba.

Cuban military and intelligence personnel aided Middle Eastern groups and regimes in their struggle against Israel, and Cuban troops fought on the side of Arab States, particularly Syria, during the Yom Kippur war. Castro sent military instructors and advisors into Palestinian bases; cooperated with Libya in the founding of World Mathaba, a terrorist movement; and established close military cooperation and exchanges with Iraq, Libya, Southern Yemen, the Polisario Front for the Liberation of Western Sahara, the PLO and others in the Middle East.

Despite the collapse of the Soviet Union, Castro continues to undermine U.S. policies in the Middle East in several ways: a) by portraying U.S. actions and diplomacy in the region as those of an aggressor, seeking to impose hegemony by force, particularly in Iraq and the perpetration of unjustified economic sanctions on Iraq and Iran; b) by portraying the U.S. as the main obstacle to a peaceful settlement of the Israel/Arab conflict; and c) by discrediting U.S. policies and seeking support for Cuba at the U.N. These anti-American views and policies are conveyed as a systematic message through a network of Cuban embassies and agents, as well as at the U.N. and other non-governmental political, religious and cultural organizations.

While not abandoning his close relationships in the Middle East, Castro has recently concentrated his support on several groups: the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia (FARC), where Castro, and his new ally Hugo Chavez of Venezuela, see significant possibilities for success; ETA, the Basque terrorist/separatist organization from Spain, which has found refuge and support in Cuba, and the Irish Republican Army (IRA), which established its Latin American headquarters in Havana.

American policymakers should pay careful attention to the intricate web of relationships which emerges so clearly from this chronology. It carefully details Castro’s involvement with and support for terrorist regimes and organizations during the past four decades. Cuba’s geographical location, Castro‘s continuous connections with these groups and states and the harboring of terrorists in Havana creates a dynamic that requires vigilance and alertness.

It should be emphasized that in addition to violence and terrorism, Castro and his regime, have been for more than four decades, the most vocal and active proponents of anti-Americanism. The often-repeated view in many countries that the United States is an evil power, guilty for much of the problems and sufferings of the developing world, is owed in great part to the propaganda efforts of Fidel Castro.


· Raúl Castro and Che Guevara visited Cairo and established contacts with African liberation movements stationed in and supported by Cairo. Both Cuban leaders visited Gaza and expressed support for the Palestinian cause.

· Members of the Dominican Republic “Agrupación Política Catorce de Junio” received military training in Cuba.

· Major emphasis was placed on instructing several hundred pro-Castro Latin Americans in violence and guerrilla warfare. Dominicans, Guatemalans, Venezuelans and Chileans were trained in special camps in Cuba and infiltrated back to their countries.

· Castro established relations with the Algerian FLN; official and public support was extended, weapons were shipped to the FLN through Morocco (1960-1961). Cuba provided shelter, medical and educational services and cooperation in the fields of counter-intelligence and intelligence.

· African leaders from Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, South Africa, Spanish Guinea, Tanganyika and Zanzibar arrived in Cuba for military training.

· Che Guevara engaged in guerrilla operations in Congo-Kinshasa (former Zaire) in 1965.

· A revolutionary trained in Cuba, John Okello, overthrew the pro-Western government in Zanzibar in 1964 and proclaimed the “People’s Republic of Zanzibar” which was promptly recognized by Cuba and the Soviet Union.

· Conference of Latin American Communist Parties held in Havana agreed to “help actively the guerrilla forces in Venezuela, Guatemala, Paraguay, Colombia, Honduras and Haiti”.

· Group of Venezuelans, members of the Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR), trained in Cuba and landed in the Venezuela coast in the State of Miranda.

· Cuban trained Guatemalans Cesar Montes and Luis Turcios Lima led a violent terrorist/guerrilla campaign against the government in Guatemala. Montes organized the Ejercito Guerrillero de los Pobres (EGP) in Guatemala. In the 1980’s he joined the FMLN in El Salvador and participated actively in the bloody civil war in that country.

· Cuba welcomed the founding of the PLO. First contacts with Palestinian FATAH in 1965 in Algiers and Damascus.

· The Tricontinental Conference was held in Havana in January, 1966 to adopt a common political strategy against colonialism, neocolonialism, and imperialism. Cuba provided the organizational structure to support terrorist, anti-American groups in the Middle East and Latin America. The Organization for the Solidarity with the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America (OSPAAL) was created.

· Fidel Castro created The National Liberation Directorate (DLN) in Cuba to support revolutionary groups throughout the world. DLN was responsible for planning and coordinating Cuba’s terrorist training camps in the island, covert movement of personnel and military supplies from Cuba and a propaganda apparatus.

· A Cuban controlled Latin American Solidarity Organization (LASO), with its permanent seat in Havana was created to “coordinate and foment the fight against North American imperialism”.

· In Venezuela, Castro made a relentless and determined effort to create another Cuba by supporting the Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional (FALN) and promoting violence and terrorism against the democratically elected regime of Rómulo Betancourt.

· Castro sent weapons via Cairo, to the NLF in Southern Yemen. Cuban agents were sent on fact-finding missions to North and South Yemen (1967- 1968).

· Cuba published a small book by French Marxist journalist Regis Debray Revolution in the Revolution, promoting guerrilla warfare in Latin America. The book was translated into various languages and distributed widely.

· Cuban supported guerrillas led by Che Guevara moved into Bolivia in an attempt to create “many Vietnams “ in South America.

· Cuba and Syria developed a close alliance and supported FATAH and the Eritrean Liberation Front (ELF).


· Cuba continued its military and political support for FATAH after the Syrians broke with the latter, and Cuban military, political and intelligence support was granted to other Palestinian organizations.

· Castro sent military instructors and advisors into Palestinian bases in Jordan to train Palestinian Fedayeen (1968); first high-level delegation from FATAH-PLO visited Cuba (1970).

· Several missions sent to Southern Yemen to support NLF/FATAH Ismail both politically and militarily.

· Castro began supporting and training of M19, a Colombian guerrilla group that captured the Dominican Embassy and the Justice building in Bogota and assassinated several prominent Colombian judges.

· In 1970 a “Mini Manual for Revolutionaries” was published in the official LASO publication Tricontinental, written by Brazilian urban terrorist leader Carlos Marighella. The mini manual gives precise instruction in terror tactics, kidnappings, etc. The short book was translated into numerous languages and distributed worldwide by Cuba.

· Cuba commenced political and military cooperation with Somalia's Siad Barre (1969).

· Economic and political cooperation began with Libya in 1974.

· In 1974 the National Liberation Directorate (DLN) was reorganized into the America Department (DA) under the Communist Party of Cuba Central Committee. The DA centralized control over Cuban activities for supporting national liberation movements. The DA was responsible for planning and coordinating Cuba’s secret guerrilla and terrorist training camps, networks for the covert movement of personnel and material from Cuba, and a propaganda apparatus. DA agents also operated in Europe and other regions. Trusted Castro ally Manuel Piñeiro, “ Barbaroja” was placed in charge.

· Cuba provided training and support to the Tupamaros, a terrorist group operating in Uruguay.

· Cuba’s America Department (DA) set up a network for the funneling of weapons and supplies to the Sandinistas in Nicaragua.

· In 1979 second in command in Cuba’s America Department (DA) Armando Ulises Estrada, helped unify Sandinista factions fighting Somoza.

· Closer connections with FATAH-PLO and other Palestinian organizations were reinforced, including training of Latin American guerrillas in Lebanon; Cuba’s military support included counter-intelligence and intelligence training.

· Arafat visited Cuba in 1974.

· Cuba provided military support and personnel to Syria during the Yom Kippur War (1973-1975).

· Black Panther Party members from the U.S. were trained in Canada by Cuban personnel. Black Panther leaders and other U.S. blacks also received weapons and explosives training in Havana.

· Cuba joined with Algeria and Libya on a diplomatic/political offensive in support of Frente POLISARIO (People's Front for the Liberation of Western Sahara and Río del Oro); later on provided military cooperation, and medical services.


· The U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) estimated that there were 300 Palestinians training in Cuban camps.

· Cuba supported the so-called "Steadfastness Front" against the U.S. backed Camp David accord.

· Illich Rámirez Sánchez, known as “Carlos, the Jackal”, responsible for numerous terrorist acts in Europe, trained in Cuba. He attended the 1966 Tricontinental Conference in Havana and later trained in urban guerrilla tactics, automatic weapons, explosives and sabotage in Cuba.

· Abu Iyad, a close aid to Yasser Arafat, stated in 1978 that hundreds of Palestinian had been sent to Cuban terrorist camps.

· Additional military and political support provided to the Palestinian cause; Arafat attended the Sixth Non-Aligned Conference in Havana (1979).

· During Havana visit, Arafat signed agreement for military cooperation and arms supply.

· Significant hard currency loans (tens of million) were facilitated by Arafat-PLO to the Cuban government under very soft terms; Cuba granted diplomatic and political support to Arafat during the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon.

· The Aden (South Yemen) regime supported the Ethiopian radical officers commanded by Mengistu Haile Mariam, sending Yemeni military units in support of the latter against Somali aggression, and asking the Cubans to do the same. Cuba joined in, first with a group of officers headed by General Arnaldo Ochoa, a move that was followed later on by the deployment of large Cuban forces against the Somali invasion. Also as part of the alliance with the Aden regime, Cuba granted some small-scale support to the Dhofaris in their armed struggle against the monarchy in Oman.

· The Cuban trained Congolese National Liberation Front invaded Shala, Zaire.

· As part of Cuba's alliance with Mengistu Haile Mariam's regime in Ethiopia, the Cuban leadership decided to engage in active political and military support of the Liberation Movement of Southern Sudan headed by John Garang against the Arab-Muslim regime in Khartoum.

· Cuba developed closer ties with and sent military advisors to Iraq.

· Cuba’s America Department (DA) operated a weapons pipeline to the Farabundo Martí National Front (FMLN) a terrorist group attempting to gain power in El Salvador.

· Cuba cooperated with Libya in the political founding of the World MATHABA in Tripoli, to provide political support and coordinate revolutionary violence throughout the world. Cuba supported Libya’s stand on Chad and the FRENTE POLISARIO.

· Cuban trained terrorists members of the Guatemalan EGP kidnapped a businessman in Guatemala. Several were arrested in Mexico when attempting to collect ransom.

· Despite its close links with Baghdad, Cuba recognized and praised the Iranian Revolution. Once Iraq attacked Iran, Castro withdrew his military advisors from Baghdad and adopted a position of official impartiality, though more sympathetic to Baghdad, due to his past relations.


· Argentine born Cuban intelligence agent Jorge Massetti helped funnel Cuban funds to finance Puerto Rican terrorists belonging to the Machetero group. The Macheteros highjacked a Wells Fargo truck in Connecticut in September 1983 and stole $7.2 million.

· Cuba’s America Department (DA) provided, thru Jorge Massetti, weapons and several thousand dollars to the Chilean MIR.

· Libyan support to Latin American revolutionary movements, especially in Central America and the whole of the World MATHABA project, declined after the U.S.bombing of Tripoli in 1986.

· Cuban agents in Mexico engaged in bank robberies to finance several terrorist groups from Latin America operating out of Mexico.

· The Palestinian Intifada increased Cuba’s support for Arafat and the PLO, both diplomatic and military.

· Several dozen Mexicans received training in terrorism and guerrilla warfare in Sierra del Rosario, Pinar del Rio Province and in Guanabo, in eastern Cuba.

· After the negotiations leading to the establishment of the Palestinian National Authority, Cuban-Palestinian military cooperation was enhanced, including the areas of counter-intelligence and intelligence.

· In early 1989, Cuban General Patricio de la Guardia directed a plot in Havana and charged Jorge Massetti with blowing up the U.S. transmission balloon of TV Martí located in the Florida Keys.

· Cuba condemned Iraq for its invasion and annexation of Kuwait, supporting the latter's sovereignty; it also condemned U.S. military operations in the Gulf and abstained at the U.N. from supporting the bulk of the sanctions imposed on Baghdad. A Cuban military delegation was sent to Iraq to learn and share what was considered vital information and experiences from U.S. combat operations in Kuwait and Iraq.

· Cuba provided advanced weapons and demolition training to the Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA) in Perú. The Tupac Amaru attacked the U.S. Embassy in 1984; bombed the Texaco offices in 1985 and attacked the residence of the U.S. Ambassador in 1985 all in Lima, Perú.


· ETA, a Spanish terrorist organization seeking a separate Basque homeland, established the Cuartel General (General Headquarters) in Havana.

· A high-level PLO military delegation including the head of Intelligence paid a visit to Cuba.

· On February 24, 1996, Cuban Air Force Migs shot down, in international waters, two small unarmed civilian planes belonging to Brothers to the Rescue, a Miami based group. All occupants were killed, including three American citizens.

· The election of Abdelaziz Bouteflika (April 1999) as President of Algeria, opened new opportunities for Cuba, given Bouteflika's close relationship with the Cuban government for more than three decades.

· PLO leaders continue to have close relations with the Cuban leadership, having access to specialized military and intelligence training, either in Cuba or Palestinian territory, and in the sharing of intelligence.

· A spokesman for the Basque government in Spain met in Havana with two high level ETA terrorist taking refuge in Cuba, José Angel Urtiaga Martinez and Jesús Lucio Abrisqueta Corte.

· Cuba continued to provide safe haven to several terrorists fugitives from the U.S. They include: Black Liberation Army leader Joanne Chesimard aka Assata Shakur, one of New Jersey’s most wanted fugitives for killing a New Jersey State trooper in 1973 and Charlie Hill a member of the Republic of New Afrika Movement wanted for the hijacking of TWA 727 and the murder of a New Mexico State trooper

· A number of Basque ETA terrorists who gained sanctuary in Cuba some years ago continued to live on the island, as did several Puerto Ricans members of the Machetero Group.

· Castro refused to join the other Ibero-American heads of state in condemning ETA terrorism at the 2000 Ibero-American Summit in Panamá and slammed Mexico for its support of the Summit’s statement against terrorism.

· Castro continues to maintain ties to several state sponsors of terrorism in Latin America. Colombia's two largest terrorist organizations, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the National Liberation Army (ELN), both maintain a permanent presence on the island.

· Colombian officials arrested IRA members Niall Connelly, Martin McCauley and James Monaghan and accused then of training the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC). Connelly had been living in Cuba as the representative of the IRA for Latin America.

· Former Defense Department counter-terrorism expert John More told UPI that Cubans, militant Palestinians, Hezbollah and even advisors from the leftist government of Venezuela are all active in Colombia.

· During the trial of several Cuban spies in Miami, one of the accused Alejandro Alonso revealed on December 30, 2000 that he was instructed from Havana to locate areas in South Florida “where we can move persons as well as things, including arms and explosives.”

· Speaking at Tehran University in Iran on May 10, 2001 Fidel Castro vowed that “the imperialist king will finally fall”.

*Eugene Pons is the Coordinator of Cuba’s Information System at the Institute for Cuban and Cuban-American Studies, University of Miami.


BPP - Black Panther Party - Founded in the United States in 1966 by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale. It adopted Marxist-Leninist principles along with urban guerrilla warfare, and a structure similar to the American Communist party.

DGI - Directório General de Inteligencia - The Cuban Department in charge of collecting intelligence and carrying out covert operations outside Cuba.

DA - America Department - Centralized control over Cuban activities for supporting national liberation movements, responsible for planning and coordinating Cuba’s secret guerrilla and terrorist camps, and propaganda apparatus.

DLN - National Liberation Directorate - Organization created in Cuba to support revolutionary groups throughout the world. Responsible for planning and coordinating Cuba’s terrorist training camps in the island, covert movement of personnel and military supplies from Cuba, and propaganda apparatus.

EGP - Ejercito Guerrillero de los Pobres - A political-military Marxist-Leninist organization that followed Cuba and Vietnam as revolutionary models. This Guatemalan insurgent organization was trained in Cuba and was very active during the 1970s, seeking to depose the political and military structure of the country.

ELF - Eritrean Liberation Front - The most influential Eritrean organization fighting for secession from Ethiopia in the 1960s, actively supported by the Cuban and Syrian regime since 1965. Various internal divisions developed later on until the late 1970s, when a new front was built based on very different domestic and external alliances and, eventually led the Eritreans to victory. Cuba's support to Mengistu Haile Mariam's regime in 1978 meant the cessation of previous Cuban backing to the Eritrean cause.

ELN - National Liberation Army - Organized by the Castro regime, this Colombian Marxist insurgent group was founded in 1965. Its main terrorist activities includes kidnappings and extortion targeting foreign employees of large corporations.

ETA - Basque Separatist Movement - This organization was founded by militants and leftist students from the University of Madrid in 1962. They formed guerilla units that commit violent terrorist acts claiming that they are fighting for freedom of the Basque Region, in Spain. This group has close relations with the IRA. The two groups have offices in Havana and their members have found safe haven in Cuba.

FALN - Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional - A Venezuelan guerrilla organization trained by Cuba in violence and terrorism.

FARC - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - Established in 1964, the FARC is the oldest and best-equipped Marxist insurgency in Colombia. It is a well-organized terrorist group that controls several rural and urban areas. It has received financial and military aid from Cuba and many of its members were trained in Havana.

FATAH - Palestine National Liberation Movement - Founded in 1959 by younger generations of Palestinians that had experienced the defeats of 1948 and 1956. The FATAH are strongly committed to a radical nationalist platform to fight for Palestine and against Arab intervention and manipulations of the Palestinian problem. Mostly an underground organization until the June War in 1967 when it transformed itself into the most powerful and influential party inside Palestinian and Arab politics.

FLN - Front de Libération National - The political and military organization that led the war of national liberation against French colonial rule between 1954 and 1962. Ruling political party until the 1980s in Algeria.

FMLN - Farabundo Martí National Front - Formed in 1970, the FMLN is a terrorist Marxist-Leninist organization intent on establishing a communist revolutionary regime in El Salvador. The FMLN was extremely active in its terrorist campaign, receiving assistance from Nicaragua and Cuba.

FSLN - Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional - This organization was founded in Havana in 1961 when Carlos Fonseca-Amador’s Nicaraguan Patriotic Youth organization merged with Tomas Borge’s Cuban-supported insurgent group. The group adopted Marxist-Leninist ideology and gained support from the Castro government, employing low-level guerrilla warfare and urban terrorism tactics to overthrow the Somoza dictatorship.

IRA - Irish Republican Army - The IRA is the most dangerous terrorist organization of Northern Ireland dating back to the early 1920s. Although, it wasn’t until the 1970’s when the IRA began terrorist actions and resurrected the historical conflicts. The IRA targets political transformation for United Ireland by eliminating Britain from Northern Ireland and replacing the government of Northern Ireland with a socialist government. Its Latin American headquarters are in Havana.

LASO - Latin American Solidarity Organization - A Cuban controlled organization founded during the 1966 Tri-Continental Conference in Havana to “coordinate and foment the fight against North American imperialism.”

M-19 - Movimiento 19 de Abril - A Castro supported group formed in 1974 to disrupt Colombia’s government through acts of terrorism and violence. The M-19 was very active throughout the 1980s receiving assistance and training from the Montoneros and Tupamaros groups and the Cuban government, causing Colombia to temporarily sever diplomatic relations with Cuba.

M-6-14 - Agrupación Politica Catorce de Junio - Dominican guerrilla organization trained in Cuba.

MACHETEROS - This terrorist organization is composed of four Puerto Rican groups: 1) the Macheteros, 2) the Ejercito Popular Borícua (EPB), 3) the Movimiento Popular Revolucionario, and 4) the Partido Revolucionario de Trabajadores Puertorriqueños. Most of the Macheteros have been trained in Cuba, were they have established relations with other terrorist groups. They are responsible for several terrorist acts within the United States and throughout Puerto Rico.

MIR - Movimiento de la Izquierda Revolucionaria - A Chilean insurgent organization founded in 1965 and supported by Castro. The MIR was very active in the mid-1970s when they promoted violence and occupied several rural areas in Chile. The group encountered several set backs during the 1980s that essentially ended their activity.

MONTONEROS - An Argentinean guerilla organization that was formed in 1968 as a Peronist urban anti-government group. It adopted a Marxist ideology in the mid-1970s after it united with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Argentina. In 1977, many of its members were exiled and its numbers reduced to less than 300.

MRTA - Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement - Marxist-Leninist revolutionary organization formed in 1983 and supported by the Castro regime. The MRTA’s intent was to establish a Marxist regime in Peru through terrorism, although Peru’s counter terrorism program diminished the groups’ ability to effectively carry out terrorist attacks.

NLF - National Front for the Liberation of South Yemen - Created in 1962 in the course of the revolution in North Yemen against the monarchy and supported by Nasser, the NLF is another important and successful branch of the Arab Nationalist Movement. Since 1965 it has had very close relations with Cuba. In 1966-1967, it broke with Nasser and finally forced the British to negotiate and evacuate Aden.

OSPAAL - Organization for the Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America - Founded in 1966 in Cuba at the Tri-Continental Conference, this organization aims to support the struggle of the people of Africa, Asia and Latin America against imperialism, colonialism and neo-colonialism.

PLO - Palestine Liberation Organization - This organization was founded in Cairo in 1964 under the auspices of Egypt (then known as the United Arab Republic) to serve Nasser's manipulations of the Palestinian cause. The group was composed mostly of conservative Palestinian intellectuals and bureaucrats serving Arab governments. The PLO was an instrument of Nasser's foreign policy until the June War of 1967, when the old PLO leadership collapsed to be replaced by FATEH's leadership headed by Arafart.

POLISARIO - People’s Front for the Liberation of Western Sahara and Río del Oro - The Frente POLISARIO was inspired by the ANM tradition and the Algerian FLN and was created to fight against the Spanish-Morrocan-Mauritanian arrangements to split the former colony of Saguía el Hamra/Río del Oro (known as Western Sahara) between the two African states. This group enjoyed active support from Algeria and Libya and Cuba.

POPULAR FRONT FOR THE LIBERATION OF PALESTINE'S - The most important branch of the Arab Nationalist Movement (ANM), created in the 1950s as radical followers of Nasser. After the June War of 1967, the group disassociated itself from Nasser and focused on building a more radical alternative within the Palestinians under the name of Popular Front. The group has strong alliances within Lebanon, Jordan, Yemen, and the Gulf, and was heavily engaged in terrorist activities during the 1970s.

TRICONTINENTAL - Cuban publication disseminated by the Organization for the Solidarity of the Peoples of Africa, Asia and Latin America (OSPAAL) in four languages: Spanish, English, French, and Italian / promoting the Castro line of armed struggle.

TUPAMAROS or MNL - Movimiento Nacional de Liberación Tupamaros - This Uruguay insurgent group was organized in the early 1960s by law student Raul Sendic. The Tupamaros were one of the first terrorist groups to use guerrilla warfare in urban areas and established independent terrorist cells throughout the country.

WORLD MATHABA - A Libyan project from the late 1970s to promote political, financial, and military support for revolutionary movements throughout the world. Ghaddafi called on other "revolutionary governments" to support this project, which Cuba did. MATHABA was essentially a tool in the hands of the Libyans to project their individual goals and agenda. Financial and military assistance was never a collective decision, but responded for the most part to bilateral arrangements between Ghaddafi's regime and individual organizations, some of which resorted, at different stages, to terrorist methods like the IRA and ETA. Insurgencies in Central America, like the Sandinistas and others, were privileged beneficiaries along with the African National Congress, Frente POLISARIO, and others.

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Geyer, Georgia Anne, Guerrilla Prince: The Untold Story of Fidel Castro. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1991.

Horowitz, Irving Louis and Suchlike, Jaime eds., Cuban Communism. New Brunswick, Transaction Publishers, 2000.

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Kopilow, David J., Castro, Israel & The PLO. Miami: The Cuban-American National Foundation, 1984.

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Recently Published

· Irving Louis Horowitz, “Political Pilgrimage to Cuba, 1959-1995.” (August 1996).

· Joaquín Roy, “España, la Uniόn Europea y Cuba: la evoluciόn de una relaciόn especial a una política de gestos y de presiόn.” (September 1996).

· Antonio Jorge, “Methodology, Ideology, and the Economy: The Dismal State of Cuban Studies.” (October 1996).

· Enrique A. Baloyra, “Twelve Monkeys: Cuban National Defense and the Military.” (November 1996)

· José Manuel Hernández, “Félix Varela: El primer cubano.” (December 1996).

· Double Issue: “Facing the Future: Two views on Cuba’s Inevitable Transition.” Includes Edward González, “Cuba’s Dismal Post-Castro Futures” and Alberto Coll, “The Future of U.S.-Cuba Relations.” (February 1996).

· Gert Oostindie, “A Loss of Purpose: Crisis and Transition in Cuba.” (March 1997).

· Marta Beatriz Roque Cabello and Arnaldo Lauzurique, “Documentos del Instituto Cubano de Economistas Independientes.” (April 1997).

· Jaime Suchlicki, “Cuba: A Current Assessment.” (May 1997).

· Graciella Cruz-Taura, “De Patria Soñada a Nación Funesta: Cuba en la Obra de José Antonio Saco.” (June 1997).

· Emilio T. González, “The Cuban Connection: Drug Trafficking and the Castro Regine.” (July 1997).

· Gustavo Pérez-Firmat, “A Willingness of the Heart: Cubanidad, Cubaneo, Cubanía.”

(September 1997).

· Jorge Duany, “From the Cuban ajiaco to the Cuban-American Hyphen: Changing Discourses of National Identity on the island and in the Diaspora.” (October 1997).

· Ricardo Pau-Llosa, “The Tasks of Exile.” (November 1997).

· Ileana Fuentes, “De Patria a Matria.” (December 1997).

· Holly Ackerman, “Five Meanings of Cuba’s Political Prisoners.” (February 1998).

· Juan del Aguila, “Exiles or Immigrants? The Politics of National Identity.” (March 1998).

· José Manuel Hernández, “The Politics of Wishful Thinking: Nineteenth Century Precedents of the Bay of Pigs.” (April 1998).

· George Lambie, “Cuban-European Relations: Historical Perspectives and Political Consequences.” (May 1998).

· Charlotte Cosner,“Vegueros and Tabaqueros: Rebellion, Revolution, and ‘The Devil’s Plant’: Challenges to State Control in Colonial Cuba.” (June 1998).

· Maria Werlau, “Impressions on the Visit of Pope John Paul II to Cuba.” (September 1998).

· Juan Clark, “The Pope’s Visit to Cuba and its Aftermath.” (June 1999).

· Domingo Amuchastegui, “Cuba in the Middle East: A Brief Chronology.” (July 1999).

· Antonio Jorge, “The U.S. Embargo and the Failure of the Cuban Economy.” (February 2000).

· Efren Cordova and Eduardo Garcia Moure, “Modern Slavery: Labor Conditions in Cuba.” (April 2000).

· Efren Cordova and Eduardo Garcia Moure, “La situacion de los trabajadores en Cuba.” (April 2000).

· Jaime Suchlicki, “The U.S. Embargo of Cuba.” (June 2000).

· Sara M. Sanchez, “Afro-Cuban Diasporan Religions: A Comparative Analysis of the Literature and Selected Annotated Bibliography.” (August 2000).

· Irving Louis Horowitz, “Searching for the Soul of American Foreign Policy: The Cuban Embargo and the National Interest.” (September 2000).

· Dr. Moises Asís, “Judaism in Cuba: 1959-1999.” (December 2000).

· Enrico Mario Santi, “Fresa y Chocolate: The Rhetoric of Cuban Reconciliation.” (May 2001).